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Pads 25A and 25B were dismantled in September Pad 18B supported 17 Thor missile launches between 4 June and 1 March Cape Canaveral LC11 Atlas launch complex. Cape Canaveral LC13 Atlas launch complex. Originally built in for the Atlas ballistic missile program. Cape Canaveral LC22 Mace launch complex. Cruise missile launch complex. Supported 20 Bull Goose and Goose missile launches Rebuilt to support 44 Mace missile launches Cape Canaveral LC15 Titan launch complex. Complexes 15, 16, 19, and 20 were built for the Titan ballistic missile program.

The sites were accepted by the U. Government between February and mid-September All four sites supported Titan I launches in and the early s, and complexes 15 and 16 supported Titan II launches between 16 March and 10 April Complex 15 was deactivated in March , and it was dismantled three months later. Cape Canaveral LC19 Titan launch complex. All four sites supported Titan I launches in and the early s. It supported two unmanned and ten manned Gemini missions between 8 April and 16 November Complex 19 was deactivated on 10 April , and it was declared a national historic landmark in April The Navy occupied pad 25B in January Complex 29 was built to support the U.

Construction began in August The complex was placed on standby status in , and it was upgraded to support the British Chevaline submarine ballistic missile program in the mid s. Complex 29 supported ten Chevaline launches between 12 September and 20 May The site was deactivated in Originally built for the Titan ballistic missile program in Supported Titan I and II launches from to Deactivated in , later reassigned to the U. Army, supported Pershing ballistic missile launches Each complex had one blockhouse and two launch pads.

The two "A" pads were constructed as conventional flat pads, and the two "B" pads were built as ballistic missile silos. The sites were modified subsequently to support later versions of the Minuteman missile. The site was deactivated in April , but it got a new lease on life toward the end of the s. Complex 20 was selected for the Starbird program in , and it supported a Starbird launch on 18 December Much of Complex 20's electronic equipment and both of its rail launchers were removed in , rendering the site inactive for a time.

An additional LC was planned at the ITL to support ambitious military space projects that never materialized. It was intended to be used by Titan 3 rockets, and would have branched to the north of the Titan causeway, symmetrical to LC It is doubtful that LC would actually have been built because it would pose a safety problem to operations from LCA. Cape Canaveral LC30 Pershing launch complex.

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Between and , the Seminoles achieved their new identity separate from the Creeks. Under the English trading networks were established that were centered near Seminole towns. Trade, herding, and the cultivation of cash crops replaced the Seminole's previous economy which was focused upon subsistence.

Despite achieving some wealth, their prosperity was short-lived. American troops during the First Seminole War in began the advance that would force the destruction or removal of the Seminoles out of north and central Florida. It became apparent that Spain could no longer control Florida. After territorial status was granted, the two Floridas were merged into one entity with a new capital city in Tallahassee. Established in , Tallahassee was chosen because it was halfway between the existing governmental centers of St.

Augustine and Pensacola. Jackson created St. Johns and Escambia Counties as the first two political subdivisions in the newly formed territory. As part of the Adams-Onis Treaty, the United States government agreed to confirm title to recipients of former Spanish land grants who had fulfilled the terms of the grants.

After the United States acquired Florida, an influx of new settlers arrived in the territory Shofner ; Tebeau When the United States acquired Florida in , they considered the Seminoles a nuisance obstructing settlement of the territory and sought to isolate them on reservations.

A series of forts were constructed across Florida and were garrisoned by local militia or regular troops. The Seminoles agreed to move to the center of the peninsula. The treaty established a four million-acre reservation for the Seminoles, but it failed to eliminate tensions between them and whites. The Second Seminole War —42 began over the question of whether the Seminoles should be moved westward across the Mississippi River into what is now Oklahoma.

In December , Chief Phillip led a revolt and attacked several plantations and sugar mills within Mosquito County which included present-day Brevard County. Several colonists were killed and this led to the Second Seminole Indian War. General Joseph Hernandez was the military commander of St. Augustine and mobilized the St. Augustine Guard to stop the uprising.

On January 17, , the St. General Hernandez then moved his troops to that location and established Fort Kingsbury on the northeast shore of Lake Monroe Macay and Blake ; Shofner ; Sunderman From Lake Monroe, the troops marched eastward to the headwaters of the Indian River and set up a temporary camp directly on the mainland, west of Ft. Here the St.

Augustine Guard linked with the local militia known as the Mosquito Roarers and additional soldiers from St. The combined force traveled south on the mainland never more than one-mile inland from the Indian River. At the same time a naval contingent moved south on the river. They reached the southern mouth of the Indian River and established Fort Pierce at this location. Ann was completed in and guarded the point between Mosquito Lagoon and the Indian River, where canoes and other shallow draft vessels were portaged.

A naval unit and three companies of artillery garrisoned Ft. This formed the original settlement of what is now Brevard County Shofner ; Sunderman During the Territorial Period, Mosquito County, which extended from central Florida to the east coast, had a population of over by the s, including 49 whites, 27 free African Americans, and slaves. Most of these people probably lived on plantations located between St. Augustine and Cape Canaveral. By the time the claims were settled, landowners were involved in the Second Seminole War, which lasted from to It was a popularly held belief that Florida wanted to prolong the war to take advantage of the federal government whose forts provided an economic base for the region.

The presence of the forts encouraged settlement, and some of the names of these forts still exist today Cantley, et al. Land was cleared, roads were built, and fortifications were constructed. Furthermore, the United States government created a real estate boom in Florida by promising a grant of land to any volunteer over eighteen who enlisted to fight the Seminoles.

Congress enacted legislation in to encourage the settlement and development of the Florida peninsula south of Palatka. The legislation, known as the Armed Occupation Act, gave ac to each head of a family or man 18 years of age. In return they had to bear arms and hold the land against the Indians for seven years. In the first year, 1, permits were issued including one to Douglas Dummett.

Dummett took advantage of the land program under the Armed Occupation Act and settled an area near Ft. Ann to grow citrus. Douglas Dummett is credited with creating the Indian River oranges by grafting wild sour orange trees with sweet oranges he grew in his groves north of Cape Canaveral. The first Haulover Canal was built just south of Ft. Ann and was completed in It was used for shallow draft vessels.

It was one of the first major man-made improvements to the inland waterway system, which had served Florida travelers since prehistoric times. However, the canal never did not function well and was used for a short period of time Cantley, et al. Further to the south at Cape Canaveral, settlers included Captain Mills Olcott Burnham, a major figure in Cape Canaveral's nineteenth century development. Burnham and his family lived at the Indian River area until when they moved to the St.

Concerns about the safe passage of vessels sailing between the East Coast and the Gulf of Mexico were brought to the attention of the Secretary of the Navy in A series of four lighthouses, including one at Cape Canaveral, was recommended by Lt. Perry to reduce this danger. It was not until that the decision to build the brick and wood lighthouse at Cape Canaveral was made. The first lighthouse was built in due to currents and shallows off the coast Cantley, et al.

When the first lighthouse keepers, Nathaniel C. Scobie and Ora William B. Carpenter resigned, Captain Burnham returned and signed on for a year stint as lighthouse keeper. Other settlers followed the Burnham family to the Cape Canaveral area and this first wave of settlers preferred the fertile and protected lands along the Banana River for their homesteads where they were able to plant citrus trees.

A community called Sand Point later named Titusville was founded west of Ft. Florida was admitted to the Union in Mosquito County went through a number of transformations and name changes, becoming Brevard in HPA ; Shofner No decisive battles were fought on Florida soil. While Union forces occupied many coastal towns and forts, the interior of the state remained in Confederate hands. Florida provided an estimated 15, troops to the Confederacy. Douglas Dummett sold his slaves at the outset of the war and allowed his grove to decline.

He was the highest-ranking Confederate official in the area, serving as collector of customs. According to local oral tradition on orders from the Secretary of the Confederate Navy, Captain Burnham dismantled the working parts of the lighthouse and buried them in his grove. Augustine lighthouse was arrested and confessed to knowing the location of both the Cape Canaveral and St. Augustine lighthouse lamps. Area residents survived the war years on the resources available in the area.

Meat was readily available, especially deer and bear, while West Indian Sheep raised by the Captain provided the family with mutton. The river supplied a wide variety of fish and waterfowl and many kinds of vegetables were grown at the cape.

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While there were no battles on Cape Canaveral during the Civil War, a large supply of live oak knees harvested by the Confederate Navy for shipbuilding were destroyed. The lighthouse property was vandalized after the Burnhams had moved to the interior for safety. Once the war ended, Captain Burnham turned in the lighthouse mechanism and the Cape Canaveral Lighthouse was back in operation Cantley, et al. The principal economic activities during the war were cattle ranching to supply meat to the Confederacy, contraband trading, and salt making. Salt was important as a meat preservative to the Confederate war effort.

One salt making plant was located near Ft. Anne and the other was reportedly built on the Indian River in the vicinity of Broad Street at Titusville. The citrus from the area played an important role in the Civil War. Confederate doctors sought citrus fruit for use as treatments as early as This helped to revitalize a flagging industry. Interestingly, Union troops occupying Florida were picking the fruit and some even managed to ship boxes of the fruit home beginning a tradition that continues to this day Wynne and Taylor Another important contribution to the war effort was aiding blockade runners and smuggling.

During the war, Union forces were in control of Fernandina, Jacksonville and St. Augustine, thus preventing the Confederacy from using these ports. The coast along central Florida was close to the British controlled islands in the Caribbean. Supplies from the islands brought into the Mosquito Lagoon or the Indian River where they were offloaded from ships and moved inland by wagons to the St.

Johns River where they were conveyed north to Georgia and Tallahassee. The Mosquito Lagoon area was so important to the Confederate war effort that Union forces targeted the area for a raid. On March 22, , Union forces launched a raid in hopes of capturing the blockade runner Kate and her cargo. The attack was unsuccessful when Confederate troops repelled the attack. Also, in and again in Union troops shelled and raided New Smyrna destroying ships, cargo and buildings occupied by Confederate Troops.

Both prevented the larger blockade ships from following them into the lagoon. Sand Point now Titusville was one of the most important unloading locations for cargo from blockade runners in Brevard County. By , the Union navy allocated a large number of ships along the coast at Jupiter Inlet and Mosquito Lagoon making it almost impossible for blockade runners to operate in this area Taylor ; Wynne and Taylor Tallahassee was the only southern capital east of the Mississippi River to avoid capture during the war, spared by southern victories at Olustee and Natural Bridge While the population of St.

Lucie Brevard County had grown substantially between and , there were still only 1, residents. A population boom took place after the war when prospective orange growers were lured by advertisements promising great profits for little work. Indian River citrus gained its reputation for excellence during this period with Dummett Grove leading all producers. The increasing popularity of citrus products also brought recognition to Florida as a winter resort. Stern wheelers brought tourists, invalids, and settlers down the St. From these hotels they were encouraged to visit the Indian River region.

On the mainland, Colonel Henry T. Titus arrived at Sand Point in He settled on a piece of land owned by his wife. He conceived the idea of founding a town and opening up the Indian River country. Colonel Titus established a stage line between Enterprise and his new settlement in In , he completed the Titus House, which became the community center of the settlement and the surrounding Indian River region.

He paid for the clearing of land at the new town and the laying out of many of the first buildings. Titus helped establish a mail route to Sand Point and served as postmaster and as justice of the peace. He shipped freight by boat and wagon into the region and then filled them with citrus for re-shipment north. Construction of a new iron lighthouse on Cape Canaveral, which had begun before the war, was completed in Cantley, et al. An census lists only seven households on Cape Canaveral proper: the Burnhams, Wilsons, Pennys, Quartermans 2 families , Hogans and the Knights, for a total population of While the lighthouse still offered employment, the occupation of the remaining residents was fruit-growing, fishing, trapping, hunting and gardening.

Between and , a tramway was built from Lake Harney to Titusville; a steamship line cruised the St. The more desirable lands along the Banana River were already claimed, so the newcomers had to settle for previously unwanted land in the interior. The homes built by the settlers were one and two story, rectangular, frame buildings supported on pine post piers and covered with split cypress shingles and many had porches. Outbuildings for storage were small and water was kept in coquina rock and mortar cisterns or storage tanks. Those living along the river had docks Cantley, et al.

In , Ecole Tamajo purchased Dummett Grove.

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He claimed to be nobility and called himself the Duke of Castalucci. He built a large octagon shaped house from wood salvaged from shipwrecks and named the place Villa de Castalucci Shofner Shiloh post office was part of a line of mail stops along a line that ran from Shiloh south through Orsino and Cape Canaveral Shofner , In late s, a yellow fever epidemic spread through Florida. Cities like Jacksonville and Tallahassee were decimated by the outbreak. The fear of yellow fever created checkpoints and quarantine stations. Anyone suspected of having yellow fever at the checkpoints was sent to quarantine stations until they showed no signs of the sickness.

Such facilities were established outside of Titusville and at Haulover Canal. In , the Atlantic Coast, St. Shortly thereafter, the line was leased to the Jacksonville, Tampa, and Key West Railroad, which extended the track to Titusville. In , Titusville formerly known as Sand Point was incorporated and the city hall was housed in a rented building on Main Street. Population growth followed the arrival of the railroad. Titusville had five stores, express and telegraph offices, two hotels, two public schools, and a steam saw mill.

With the only rail connection, it was the hub of transportation for the Indian River region. Charles Nauman became the postmaster of the community of Haulover and he later became a grove owner and county leader. Vann who ran a store and post office founded the town of Clifton near Dummett Grove Shofner In the late s, there was a series of freezes that devastated the citrus groves and local economy.

The citrus growers had to diversify and grow other types of fruit and vegetables including guava, tomatoes and pineapple. One farmer is reported to have raised ostriches near the town of Courtenay Shofner The transportation infrastructure of Titusville was supplemented by the construction of a railroad wharf on the Indian River at what is now Broad Street. The wharf was a transfer point where freight and passengers boarded the Indian River steamers for points farther south and to the coast.

Steamship companies coordinated their schedules with those of the railroad to insure continuity of travel. The railroad had an immediate impact on the economy of the entire Indian River region. It allowed the rapid entry of tourists and permanent settlers, while facilitating the shipment of products from the region, particularly fish and fruit, to markets to the north.

Businesses directly and indirectly associated with the fish and fruit industry, such as ice plants, packinghouses, and canneries developed HPA Melbourne was deeply affected economically by the railroad. With the reduction of steamboat travel Melbourne lost a major segment of the local economy. In the s, a post office was founded at Cape Canaveral. It was located on a dock on the east shore of the Indian River and mail was delivered by boat Cantley, et al.

The lighthouse tower was in need of repairs by the s and needed more protection from encroaching water. Both concerns were handled by at the close of an 18 month project that moved the tower inland in sections and reassembled the sections at the current site.

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Other support buildings were added at this location. The new lighthouse complex consisted of two, one story dwellings; three one story frame dwellings; two storage sheds and a water tower Baxter and Britt The population before was less than In it rose to and, by , it dropped to Despite the lack of population growth, area residents became involved with a number of commercial operations which diversified the Cape's economy. Highway construction helped to switch the community's dependence from boats to automobiles and a wooden bridge linking the mainland with Cocoa Beach was built around One of the largest changes in the community occurred in the late s, or early s.

A commercial fishery known as the Cape Fishing Company was built by the Canaveral Harbour Corporation to process fish, particularly sharks. Collecting and drying palmetto berries was another Cape Canaveral industry. The dried berries were hauled to Cocoa where they were shipped by rail to northern companies. These companies would grind them into powder for use as a painkiller. Cape Canaveral had two schools and at least one church. One of the schools was located on the Banana River side of the Cape and was used as a church on Sundays. The second was on the ocean side located within what was known as Canaveral Town.

Government interest in Cape Canaveral increased in the late s when they began buying land from the state to establish a long-range proving ground. A committee, formed by the DoD in , chose Cape Canaveral for a mission test center. The factors which prompted the committee to select the Cape were the weather, the geographic isolation, low land prices, the existence of government owned property in the area and the proximity to islands in the West Indies and South Atlantic which could be used for tracking missiles.

In , the installation was redesignated the Long Proving Ground Division with the status of a major air command. Patrick, who had served as Chief of the U. Army Air Service from to Agreements with the British government in permitted a 1, km range, and later extensions brought the range km to Ascension Island and eventually to the Indian Ocean.

By the s launch facilities were developed with a greater degree of flexibility to support operational changes. During this early Cold War period, operational and support buildings were related to the active programs of research and testing new missile systems Cleary , The first missile, a modified German V-2 rocket was launched from the Cape on July 24, During the next three years various cruise-type missiles were tested, including the Matador in and later the Snark and Bomarc.

Russia's launch of Sputnik I in turned America's attention to the rapid expansion of space exploration. By the s, numerous launch complexes had been constructed on the Cape. The early satellite launches and all manned Mercury and Gemini flights originated from Cape Canaveral.

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This area would become the John F. Activities at CCAFS had reached their peak in , and the years following saw a gradual decline in many phases of operations. Launch complexes and support buildings which had served their purposes were either; adapted to other uses, deactivated, or put on standby. Operation and maintenance of the missile test range has been the responsibility of a civilian contractor since The development of the space industry also dramatically transformed the surrounding communities, including Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Cocoa, and Titusville.

Their population expanded greatly, and all had to cope with the demands of a suddenly enlarged workforce for social and educational services. Support industries appeared on the periphery of both installations. State and local governments strained to install the physical infrastructure to accommodate the new population and activity, while at the same time tourism was also increasing along what came to be known as the "Space Coast".

The reports were reviewed to become familiar with the current state of research for the site area and Brevard County. Archaeological publications for the area were reviewed c. Literature searches were conducted at the Tebeau Field Library of Florida History, Brevard County Public libraries and University of Central Florida for documents and references that may have relevance to the project area. This research included maps, land records, genealogical records, historic documents, and aerial photographs of the area. Research also included reviewing at least one aerial photograph dating back at least 50 years in intervals of 10 to 15 years, review of floodplain maps, wetland maps, construction documents, Soil Conservation Service county soil book, interviews, and general public records.

BIGs are manuals that document the construction date, square footage, location, ownership, occupants, and basic use of facilities. Construction plans were reviewed for information on the original use and changes over time. The purpose of the survey was to confirm the research that no structures within the project area were subject to the National Register of Historic Places NRHP criteria Andrus, et al. To avoid confusion, duplicate facility numbers were eliminated during the screening process and the most recent building number was used for reference. The same approach was taken in areas where new facilities were constructed on the site of a demolished facility.

The newest facility number is used as the reference for that area in order to avoid duplicative assessment of the same geographical area. The model consists of designating high, medium and low areas of archaeological potential AAPs for prehistoric archaeological sites. This model was based upon averages or trends seen in the characteristics of each site: soil type, distance to water, topography, temporal period, vegetation, elevation, etc.

Table 3. From this data the characteristics were examined for the various level of site potential in the project area. Lucie and Welaka soil series. High AAPs are typically found 5 to 15 m above mean sea level. High probability zones are found in the following areas: 0 to m along the St.

Medium Areas of Archaeological Potential are those areas where sites are located on elevated features composed of well drained to moderately well drained soils Table 3. Medium AAPs are typically m above sea level. Johns River or other water source. Low AAPs areas include wet hammocks and submerged or partially submerged parcels Table 3. It should be noted that these AAPs are biased towards prehistoric sites.

A close inspection was conducted of all roads, trails, open areas, fence lines, ditches, and drainages. Based upon this survey areas were designated for concentrated subsurface testing. Soil from the shovel tests was screened through 64 millimeter 64 mm hardware cloth.

NAGPRA requires that certain procedures be followed when there is an intentional excavation or inadvertent discovery of Native American human remains and cultural objects. Each statute mandates compliance with independent requirements. Compliance with one statutory requirement therefore may not satisfy other applicable requirements. The 45 SW is engaged in a continuing inventory of the cultural resources within its boundaries. Human remains and organic preservation in general are rare. Generally, ground disturbing activities have the potential for uncovering unreported archeological deposits or affecting potential Traditional Cultural Properties TCP.

The potential exists for accidental discovery of archeological sites, even in inventoried areas. Reconnaissance survey techniques, though effective, cannot locate every site. Additional sites may be deeply buried and therefore not accessible by shovel testing or lie amid dense vegetation or other obstructions. In the event of the discovery of possible human remains all work in the immediate area of the discovery will cease and reasonable efforts should be made to avoid or minimize any impacts. Visit the site as soon as practical within twenty-four 24 hours of the discovery, to determine if the remains are 1 associated with a recent crime scene and 2 if not, whether the remains are of a person of Native American descent, and; b.

If, upon examination, the remains are identified as non-human, determine if archeological contexts are present that need to be evaluated pursuant to Section 36 CFR of the National Historic Preservation Act 16 USC w , or; c. If, upon examination, the remains appear to be human and associated with a crime scene of 75 years old or less, notify the OSI. Protect the site until OSI assumes custody of the remains, or; d. If, upon examination, the remains appear to be human, but are not associated with a crime scene, contact the Florida SHPO and; e.

The human remains and cultural objects will be evaluated in situ. Destructive analysis is prohibited, unless consultation with lineal descendants or affiliated Indian tribes has been completed. The site will be protected according to standard installation practice for archeological discoveries. Stabilization or covering may be employed if necessary. Notify the Installation Commander of the inadvertent discovery immediately, follow-up notification with a written report and receive written confirmation of the receipt of the notification within 48 hours of the initial discovery.

Notify the appropriate lineal descendants or Indian tribes within 3 working days after receipt of written notification by the installation commander of the discovery of Native American human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony. Notify by telephone and in writing. Include a copy of the field evaluation. Send the notice by certified mail to the lineal descendant or tribal government official with a copy furnished to the NAGPRA contact person designated by the tribe.

Make a follow-up phone call to the lineal descendants or NAGPRA coordinators of the Indian tribes contacted to determine if written notification of the discovery was received and to ascertain how the tribe wishes to proceed in determining cultural affiliation, treatment, and disposition of the human remains or cultural objects.

In the case of the Seminole and Miccosukee tribes there is a cultural aversion to discussing the dead. Lineal descendants, as determined pursuant to 43 CFR Indian tribe holding tribal lands, as defined in 43 CFR Culturally affiliated Indian tribe, as defined in 43 CFR Indian tribe recognized as the aboriginal owners of the land by a final judgment of the Indian Claims Commission or the United States Court of Claims v.

Indian tribe with the strongest demonstrated cultural relationship 4. Provide copies of the written plan of action to the consulting lineal and Indian tribes. Include the following information in the written plan of action: i. Kinds of material to be considered as cultural objects as defined in 43 CFR Specific information used to determine custody pursuant to 43 CFR Treatment, care, and handling of human remains and cultural objects; iv. Archeological recording of the human remains and cultural objects; v.

Kinds of analysis for identification of human remains and cultural objects; vi. Steps to be followed to contact Indian Tribe officials at the time of an inadvertent discovery or before any excavation of human remains or cultural objects; vii. Nature of the reports to be prepared, and; ix. Pursuant to 43 C.

Consider the need for assessing the activity under NEPA, and; c. Or, document the treatment of remains and cultural objects in a written binding agreement between the installation and the affiliated Indian tribes that adopts a plan for stabilization and protection of the site with no removal of human remains and cultural objects, excavation or removal of the human remains or cultural objects in accordance with 43 CFR Not every artifact needs or should be curated. In order to limit the amount of artifacts that must be curated procedures have been developed per Guidelines for the Field Collection of Archaeological Materials and Standard Operating Procedures for Curating Department of Defense Archaeological Collections Griset and Kodack and based on the known body of knowledge regarding analysis of artifacts for this region.

All artifacts from one FS number one provenience would be cleaned together. Non- metallic and non-organic artifacts such as ceramics would be washed using a plastic tub filled with water and a strainer. Toothbrushes would be provided to scrub the artifacts. Iron and metallic artifacts would be cleaned using copper wire brushes, holding the artifact over a trash can to catch the rust. They were scrubbed gently to remove as much of the obvious oxidation and dirt as possible without removing portions of the original artifact.

Organic items, such as bone, would be gently brushed with a dry toothbrush, removing as much of the dirt and roots as possible without damaging the item. If the bone is very dense and intact, it may be appropriate to wash it with water. Artifact processing and analysis would be accomplished by use of reference specimens and published references as appropriate Loy and Powell ; Kelly, et al.

The material would be organized by analytical groupings within provenienced units and placed in labeled, clear plastic bags. Catalog numbers would be assigned to each artifact or groups of artifacts using a system derived from the field specimen numbers assigned in the field. In the late eighteenth century, botanist John Bartram and his son William traveled the St. Johns River in what is now Brevard County. They identified over twenty sites including the Mt. Royal site Goggin In the late nineteenth century, Jeffries Wyman , of the Peabody Museum at Harvard University conducted several systematic investigations of burial mounds and shell middens along the St.

Johns River and coastal region. Clarence B. Moore conducted archaeological projects throughout Florida in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. He excavated or visited most of the mounds along the St. Johns River and investigated other sites along the Gulf coast and into the panhandle region of Florida Moore , , , , , a, b, , , , ; Goggin In , Nels Nelson applied the stratigraphic ceramic approach, developed by A. Kidder for sites in the southwestern United States, to the study of a mound in Oak Hill. He developed a ceramic sequence for the site Goggin ; Milanich Jesse Jennings excavated a site at Ormond Beach and Matthew Stirling made several collecting trips around the Deland area.

It was during the collecting trips that Stirling developed the St. Johns Area concept based upon ceramic typology Milanich ; Goggin During the s through the late s, archaeologists began using more scientific methods of research and developed an interest in establishing cultural sequences based on changes in the pottery and stone artifacts.

With the development of absolute dating techniques, such as radiocarbon dating, archaeologists were able to carry this research one step farther and order their artifact sequence along a known time-line. This objective remains today as an important research goal as archaeologists verify, refine, and detect local variations in previously established chronologies.

Griffin and Hale G. Both the University of Florida and Florida State University established Departments of Anthropology and conducted numerous excavations throughout Florida. John Goggin defined several of the cultural areas in Florida which further advanced the understanding of the prehistory of Florida including a comprehensive review of the archaeology of the St. Johns River area from northern Brevard County to Jacksonville Bullen , , , ; Goggin , a, b, , ; Griffin , They also refined the work of Stirling and identified the place of the fiber-tempered ceramics within the region.

Irving Rouse conducted a comprehensive archaeological survey of the Indian River area of Florida Rouse Rouse visited sites all along the Indian River and St.

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Beginning in the s, archaeologists began to develop techniques which enabled them to examine subsistence patterns in now extinct cultural groups. How extinct peoples exploited and interacted with their environment throughout time remains an important problem in archaeology.

Another problem, related to studies of subsistence, is that of settlement. The question of why people selected the living and work sites that they did, and to what extent environmental and social factors influenced the selection of those sites, remains of paramount importance if archaeologists are going to study the interaction of social groups existing along the coastline at any one time. A more recent research objective in archaeology is the study of soils for reconstructing past landscapes and landscape evolution, for use in estimating the age of surfaces and depositional episodes, and for providing physical and chemical indicators of human occupations.

Once these factors are understood, archaeologists will be able to examine the processes which necessitated changes in the technological and social systems through time. One of the most important projects in Florida archaeology was the Windover Site investigation in southwest Titusville Doran and Dickel ; Doran The site was excavated from through the beginning of and yielded a wealth of data on the Early Archaic Period. In , a historic property survey was conducted for the City of Titusville.

In , the IRAS conducted an archaeological survey of The Savannahs, a residential development immediately south of the project area. During this survey they recorded one prehistoric site Jones , Personal communication. In , the University of West Florida UWF conducted a countywide archaeological survey of selected areas of Brevard County which included a visit to the project area Bense and Phillips A historic properties survey was conducted across all of Merritt Island in by Historic Property Associates.

From through , Archaeological Consultants, Inc. This site is approximately 4. It is actually a multi- component site consisting of two historic houses, a prehistoric occupation and a burial mound 8BR63 previously recorded with the FMSF Penders, et al. This contributes to the understanding of social dynamics at work among sites located on the Cape and those located in adjacent areas, as well as, those social groups existing along the Florida coastline in general.

Due to the number of surveys conducted they have been divided by decade.

While the number of surveys suggest CCAFS has been extensively surveyed they should be viewed with caution. Most have focused on the high probability zone located along the east bank of the Banana River. Those outside of this zone were limited to contract specific funded projects or in a couple of cases were inadequate and would not be accepted today based on the current standards of the Florida SHPO.

The surveys are summarized in Table 4. It was the first attempt to synthesize the regional site information to address some of these outstanding questions. Of particular interest is Rouse's cultural sequence that is still used by most researchers working in the area today.

Although not universally accepted by all Florida archaeologists, Rouse's Malabar sequence, which includes both northern St. Johns and southern Glades traits, is important for examining the transitional nature of artifact assemblages found on Cape Canaveral. Long's research was not intended to be a systematic survey but focused on documenting previously recorded sites in the area, as well as sites reported on by local informants and amateur archaeologists.

Long also visited areas under construction and areas which he thought were "high" probability areas for the occurrence of aboriginal occupation including a number of sites located at CCAFS along the Banana River shoreline Long His detailed site descriptions, artifact observations, and locational data remain the extent of what we know of these sites today. He also erroneously assigned site numbers to some sites.