Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Paula De Vos Editor. Kristin Huffine Editor. This collection of essays is the first book published in English to provide a thorough survey of the practices of science in the Spanish and Portuguese empires from to Authored by an interdisciplinary team of specialists from the United States, Latin America, and Europe, the book consists of fifteen original essays, as well as an introduction and an afterword by This collection of essays is the first book published in English to provide a thorough survey of the practices of science in the Spanish and Portuguese empires from to Authored by an interdisciplinary team of specialists from the United States, Latin America, and Europe, the book consists of fifteen original essays, as well as an introduction and an afterword by renowned scholars in the field.
The topics discussed include navigation, exploration, cartography, natural sciences, technology, and medicine. This volume is aimed at both specialists and non-specialists, and is designed to be useful for teaching. It will be a major resource for anyone interested in colonial Latin America. Get A Copy. Hardcover , pages.
More Details Original Title. Other Editions 3. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Science in the Spanish and Portuguese Empires, — , please sign up. Be the first to ask a question about Science in the Spanish and Portuguese Empires, — Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. All Languages. More filters. Sort order. Martha rated it really liked it Jan 11, Rose Linke rated it really liked it Jan 25, Fernando marked it as to-read Mar 01, Of particular interest is Spanish scholarship on the Ottoman Empire and other parts of the Muslim world not frequently addressed in the English historiography on Spanish contributions to early modern scientific knowledge.
However, earlier scholars tended to focus only on technological achievement and nationalistic celebrations of discovery, without addressing the epistemological consequences of these voyages. Cuesta Domingo exemplifies the concerns of Spanish scholars during the years surrounding the Columbian quincentenary, exploring Spanish astronomical and cartographical achievement in the early modern period.
Most of this work, however, resembles Lafuente and Mazuecos in seeking to establish Spanish contributions to, and claim primacy for Spanish innovation in, a narrative of modern scientific development defined by later French and English achievements. Simon presents an interesting alternative for later periods, when policy decisions might have as much effect on changing spatial orientations as technological innovation.
Translated by Neil Safier, — New York: Cambridge University Press, Identifies the transformative effects that the practical requirements of navigation had over representations of space and the authority of empirical observers. History of Portuguese Cartography. Valladolid, Spain: Universidad de Valladolid, Most essays share an interest in the problem of constructing and defining space in the context of navigation.
Establishes distinct European and indigenous vocabularies of spatial representation while exploring the influence of different groups—an indigenous mapmaking artisanry or feuding Spanish landowners, for example—in blurring these distinctions. Edited by Pamela H. Smith and Paula Findlen, 83— New York: Routledge, These practical, institutional disputes took on global importance in calculating the obverse of the Papal Line of Demarcation in order to define Spanish and Portuguese claims to the Spice Islands.
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Provides insight into the way practical considerations influenced conceptions of global space. Provides helpful insight into the quotidian operations of such postings, but also traces the growing Portuguese focus on Brazil, at the expense of African and Indian Ocean possessions, upon scientific investigation of its commercial and strategic potential.
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An important explication of the north-south dimension of early modern Spanish, and European, empire. Find this resource: Natural History In the contemporary historiography on science in the Iberian American empires, natural history has received more attention than any other discipline.
As a result, it proves useful as a lens on the evolving concerns of historians of Iberian science as a whole. Traditionally, scholars have focused primarily on the royal expeditions of the late 18th century, which gathered botanical samples for illustration or collection in botanical gardens and to a lesser degree on the 16th-century efforts to discover and classify the wealth of previously unknown species of flora and fauna in the New World.
The earliest studies, in English and exemplified by Steele and Engstrand , prove mostly descriptive, primarily serving the defensive purpose of establishing the existence of scientific enquiry in the Spanish Empire. More recently, the literature in English on natural history in the Americas has expanded, and scholars on both sides of the Atlantic have increasingly turned their attentions toward previously unheralded contributions from indigenous and African knowledges, as well as members of nonscholarly occupational groups, such as merchants, healers, engineers, and pearl divers.
Bleichmar , by contrast, highlights the distinct visual botanical academic traditions developed in Spanish America that self-consciously sought to draw difference with those in Europe. The 17th and early 18th centuries remain the least-developed chronological period, but recent scholarship in colonial natural histories, such as Ewalt , has begun to address this deficiency as well.
Campinas, Brazil: Editora da Unicamp, Focuses on the role of apothecaries and other medical practitioners in creating a social space around curing and a hierarchy of medical authority in the hybrid, competitive colonial environment for curative solutions. Also covers the production of scholarly texts on materia medica in Brazil and Portuguese. Identifies indigenous Brazilians and Africans as sources, but without exploring their contributions. The Mutis expedition in Nueva Granada self-consciously took apart the European botanical visual grammar and created a much more sophisticated new one.
Seattle: University of Washington Press, Does not engage with historiographical questions of contemporary interest, but is a rare contribution in the English language for its time and provides a thorough understanding of the daily operation of the 18th-century expeditions. Lacks foundation in previous centuries of natural learning in the Americas, but provides insight into an exemplary instance of the 18th-century scientific expeditions. Synthesizes conclusions from the immense Spanish-language literature, produced in both Spain and Latin America, focusing on the practical requirements of field botany, their consequences for the construction of scientific knowledge, and the role of commercial interests in the movement of botanical samples and materia medica.
Madrid: Nivola, Contrasts their geographical, political, and professional situations in highlighting the effects of practical concerns and of collaborators from different cultural, social, and technical backgrounds on the inclusive and multifaceted nature of 16th-century natural history.
Thoroughly researched, with detailed narrative of interpersonal rivalries and communication between scientists—including the dispute with Mutis regarding cinchona, institutional obstacles, and the publication process. In the Iberian empires, however, in the two centuries before these cultural expectations developed north of the Pyrenees, there developed an active, well-organized, and nearly globally dispersed community of people in a variety of occupations applying scientific knowledge, technology, and empirical observation to the furtherance of empire and commerce.
These trends continued, as studies into the personnel who contributed to the 18th-century expeditions, such as Domingues , have demonstrated. Early sections address pre-Columbian mining practice, the Spanish foundation in European mining and metallurgical knowledge, and their combined influence on innovations in silver amalgamation. Later sections follow the evolution of mining policy and practice throughout the colonial period. Continues to be the most detailed treatment of this important area of applied science and technology.
Instrument makers, pearl fishers, and miners relied on empiricism and experience to explain what textual authorities could not, influencing scholarly treatments of the New World as well. Presents the expeditions as a combination of Enlightenment intellectual curiosity and strategic interests, emphasizing the contributions of members with applied technological and engineering skills to the expedition in, among other things, their careful charting of the Amazon.
Madrid: Actas Editorial, Subjects include navigation, cartography, military and civil engineering, instrument making, medicine, and communications. Includes contributions from a good cross-section of mostly Spanish historians of Spanish Empire science of the most recent generation. Find this resource: Knowledge Networks The movement of people and objects back and forth across the Atlantic, throughout the Americas, and around the world has long been a core interest of historians of the early modern European empires.
More recently, scholars have redirected their focus into other facets of knowledge networks, including Bauer on the role of place,Safier on the identities of participants and their social relationships, and Bleichmar and Furtado on the movement of representations of objects in addition to the objects themselves. Information and people did not only move between colony and metropole, either.
Carney and Rosomoff and Walker show just some of the ways people and objects from the rest of the globe—in this case Africa and the Portuguese empire in the Indian Ocean—influenced the Iberian Americas. These topics signal the possibilities of scholars to achieve manageable global projects in the history of science for this period.
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- Science in the Spanish and Portuguese Empires, – by Daniela Bleichmar;
Looks to the construction of natural and general histories from travel narratives and empirical observations to explore divergent expectations of scientific authority on either side of the Atlantic. Books were vectors for established scientific authority that moved with the traveling natural historian and allowed the observer to contextualize his experience in establishing the uniqueness of his discoveries, but also to demonstrate his acknowledgment of a global scientific community.
Berkeley: University of California Press, Relies on interdisciplinary bodies of evidence to construct a synthetic overview of the important contributions of Africans to New World foodways and botanical culture. El mestizaje cultural y la medicina novohispana del siglo XVI. Most of the essays address medical collaboration between indigenous and European practitioners, including the transmission of the resulting practices throughout the Spanish Atlantic and Europe.
Edited by James Delbourgo and Nicholas Dew, — Identifies the common threads of the incorporation of local knowledge, direct observation, global movement of people and books, and Luso-Brazilian participation in a European community of scholars. Includes an extensive appendix of plant species cross-referenced to their appearances in the print sources under analysis.
Engages with sociological and anthropological theories of science in episodic chapters intended to examine the geographies and networks of scientific knowledge production and to identify the unheralded nonelite, local contributors to the expedition. Journal of Spanish Cultural Studies 8. Explores the collaborative relationship between indigenous healers and European physicians while tracing the influences of these interactions not just from the colony to the metropole, but between colonial zones as well.
Find this resource: Science and Institutions Recent scholarship has amply demonstrated the fundamental role that science played in furthering imperial aims for the Spanish and Portuguese. The Iberian empires were notable among early modern European empires for developing centralized bureaucracies for the purpose of administering activities—such as exploration, the development of astronomical instruments, or classification of botanical specimens, among others—as early as the late 15th and early 16th centuries.
Slade provides a more theoretical essay of a similar bureaucratic project in its analysis of the creation of the Archivo General de Indias. At the same time that these bureaucracies provided support for scientific investigation and innovation, they introduced their own political and financial interests into the equation, frequently obstructing or redirecting the efforts they were created to facilitate.
Chambouleyron provides an example of how policies and strategic institutional interests that did not specifically concern themselves with scientific practice may have had a similar effect to those studied in Goodman More recently, scholars have continued to explore these practically oriented questions, but have also moved on to explore the various ways that institutional interests affected the aims of scientific investigation, as in Pimentel , which connects scientific questions to the maintenance of universal monarchy, and the theoretical assumptions of practitioners such as the cosmographers, cartographers, and navigators who frame their work in terms of imperial secrecy, as in Sandman La conquista de la naturaleza americana.
This synthetic overview explains the kinds of data provided by and the concerns apparent in these documents, which represent the large-scale institutional apparatus for the collection of empirical data regarding the natural world in 16th-century Spain. Primarily of interest to historians of science for its thorough work with archival sources from Brazil and Portugal in the natural products of Amazonia. Demonstrates the fruitfulness of employing a broad definition of science in its application to innovations in the Spanish Empire. Cosmographers and Pilots of the Spanish Maritime Empire.
- Oeuvres de Errico Malatesta (French Edition).
- Science in the Spanish and Portuguese Empires, 1500–1800.
- Science in the Spanish and Portuguese empires, 1500-1800!
Aldershot, UK: Ashgate Variorum, In particular, Lamb provides insight into the effect of institutional rivalries on imperial scientific priorities. Concerned with space and locality as they affect the functions of empire and the construction of scientific knowledge.
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Edited by James Delbourgo and Nicholas Dew, 31— Traditional knowledge in the practice of wayfinding had to remain secret to impede rivals, but accurate charts had to be published in order to manifest territorial claims. Improves understanding of Spanish secrecy and the effect of pragmatic compromises in imperial policy on scientific practice. This approach provides insight into the effects of institutional obstacles on the development of the historical memory and historiography of empire.
Find this resource: Theories of Science and Empire That the powerful may employ science in the service of empire has become a truism among historians of science. Grove serves as a useful introduction in its grand narrative, in several different imperial contexts, of the development of environmental conservationism as a means of maximizing the investment in imperial expansion. Drayton provides a nuanced demonstration of this perspective in following the history of the Royal Botanical Garden at Kew and the British use of gardening metaphors to justify their imperial rule through scientifically progressive stewardship, while Raminelli expands on similar themes for the Portuguese Empire in analyzing the implications of scientific patronage for control over the space of the Brazilian frontier.
In the most recent generation of scholarship, historians of science and empire have branched out from questions of the justification and maintenance of power through science. The collected essays in Delbourgo and Dew , a good introduction to this expanding focus, present a useful cross-section of contemporary concerns in sections covering topics such as the frustrating effects of distance on knowledge transmission and the role of imperial politics in scientific discourse.
The large scale of the early modern European empires provided both opportunities and challenges that shaped scientific ambitions, theory, and practice. Empire did not only have a transformative effect on these metropolitan projects, however. Cook addresses the pressures on Dutch merchants and scientific practitioners of communicating across vast distances and cultural and linguistic barriers, while Barrera-Osorio traces the development of an entrepreneurial scientific culture in the Spanish Americas which claimed independence from scholars in the distant metropolis.
Recent scholars have also pursued ways that these conditions frustrated scientific knowledge and practice. Schiebinger , for one, analyzes the partial and culturally and politically determined transmission of botanical knowledge from the Caribbean to scholars in Europe. In this arrangement, scientific and medical priorities influenced those of commerce and political economy, and vice versa, in the Dutch- mediated global market for materia medica and natural knowledge.