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Redevelopment and residents: Housing experiences upon displacement 9. Residents and participation: limited opportunities Conclusion: assessing developer-led partnership. Travis S. It provides a sociological account of masculinity, desire, sexuality, identity and citizenship in contemporary Chinese societies, and within the constellation of global culture. Kong reports the results of an extensive ethnographic study of contemporary Chinese gay men in a wide range of different locations including mainland China, Hong Kong and the Chinese overseas community in London, showing how Chinese gay men live their everyday lives.

Relating Chinese male homosexuality to the extensive social and cultural theories on. The book concludes that different gay male identities — such as the conspicuously consuming memba in Hong Kong, the urban tongzhi , "money boy" in China, and the feminised "golden boy" in London — emerge in different locations, and are all caught up in the transnational flow of queer cultures which are at once local and global. Queers are ready!? Sexual Citizenship and Tongzhi Movement 3.

Human Development in China 2. Uneven Economic Development and the Epidemic 4. Migration and the Spread of HIV 5. Economic Impacts. Some chapters adopt a comparative perspective, comparing the Chinese case with important economies such as Korea and India and the global economy more generally. The MLP promises to alter the prevailing trajectory of Chinese innovation in a fundamental way, putting the enterprise at centre stage in an effort to secure better linkages between those organisations that generate new ideas and those responsible for the commercialisation of these ideas.

Finally, it addresses the crucial question of whether China has embarked on a path that will lead it to becoming a true technological superpower. Twenty Years of Software Development in China 2. The novelty, urgency, and complexity of Chinese unemployment have compelled the government to experiment with policy initiatives that originate in the West, initiatives such as training programmes, career and psychological counselling, a webbased national labour-market information network, and labour-market insurance, and also other employment-related initiatives such as using community shequ organizations as the base for new mechanisms of governance and informal job generation.

Based on extensive original research including semi-structured interviews, the book argues that although the Chinese government is not a liberal democracy, it is increasingly using liberal techniques to govern. Chapter 3 Public Employment Agencies. Chapter 5 University Career Centres. Chapter 6 Temporary Staffing Agencies. Chapter 7 Laws and Numbers. Chapter 8 Periodic Campaigns. The recent economic reforms and concurrent relaxation of religious polices have provided fertile ground for the revitalization of a wide range of religious practices including divination, ancestor worship, temple festivals, spirit mediumism, funeral rites, exorcism, pilgrimages and more.

At the same time apparently new forms of religious practices have emerged, including lay Buddhist preachers, "Maoist shamans", and a bewildering number of new sects and schools. This book provides a wide-ranging and in-depth survey of contemporary religious practices in China. It examines the nature of contemporary practices, including formal and informal practices, mainstream religions such as Buddhism and Daoism, minority religions such as Roman Catholicism and "new" religions. It explores how this remarkable religious effervescence has come about, discusses which practices are revivals of older practices, which are new ones and which older practices have not been revived, and relates religious revitalization and innovation to larger issues of social and cultural continuity and change.

JI Zhe 2. It argues that it is the dependence of primary level trade unions on the employers, not acceptance of Party leadership, which is the main obstacle to effective union work and that the evolving labour unrest, as opposed to legal developments, is the main force driving trade union reform.

While exploring the dominant direction of this reform, which has been to channel disputes into juridical forms of dispute resolution sponsored by the State, the book also highlights key examples of more innovative experiments in trade union work that represent a clear break with past practice and, crucially, have been recognised by both the union and Party leaderships as models for future trade union policy and practice. This book tells the story of the crash, discusses the many controversial issues surrounding it, and considers why it has come to have such importance for the Japanese.

It shows how the Japanese coped with the disaster — having to acknowledge shortcomings such. Although concentrating on a single episode the book casts a great deal of light on Japanese attitudes and behaviour more generally. JL — From Take-off to Disaster 3. The Human Cost 4. The Media and JL 5. JL as a Phenomenon 6. In many of these countries Chinese immigrants are engaged in entrepreneurial activities, often dominating key sectors of the economy. This book provides a comprehensive overview of Chinese migration to these countries.

It explores how Chinese migration has come about, discusses the motivation of the migrants and examines the significant contribution the migrants are making. The book relates Chinese migration to wider issues of globalisation and international business, and assesses the idea that Chinese migrants seem to thrive in ravaged countries deemed too risky by institutional businesses. Merchant Competition in Bulgaria Anna Krasteva 3. The political and economic forces and the cultural institutions that have been active in shaping Bangladesh cinema are presented.

The author explores how the conflict among different social groups turned Bangladesh cinema into a site of contesting identities during the twentieth century and beyond. In particular, he illustrates the connections between film production and reception in Bangladesh and a variety of nationalist constructions of Bengali Muslim identity. It is then argued that the development of western-educated Bengali-Muslim middle classes and their search for a distinct cultural identity affected the development of cinema as a cultural institution in postcolonial East Pakistan and Bangladesh.

Methods in Film Historiography 2. Cinema and Cultural Modernity in Colonial Bengal 5. Arguing that Bengali cinema has been a key economic and social institution, which must be considered for what it brings to bear upon our existing sense of Bengali and Indian history, the author highlights that the Bengali filmic imaginary existed over and above the imaginary of the Indian nation. The Transition to a Regional Cinema, 5. Mainstream and Parallel Cinemas, 8.

Changing Contexts, New Texts: the post Bengali cinema 9. Exile 3. Office without Power 4. Exile II 5. Office without Power II 6. Exile III 7. The Assassination. He engages with the common assumptions about everyday South Asian and diasporic South Asian cultures and representations that are given expression in and through Bollywood cinema.

By interrogating these issues further, the ideas of nation, race, religion, gender and sexuality, cinema and public spaces, diaspora and globalization are explored. Providing a socio-cultural commentary on the contemporary workings of popular Hindi cinema as an industry, this book is a continuation of the critical tradition. It presents aesthetic readings of readily available contemporary films that are indicative of select key films of the last ten years and their emerging trends in dealing with issues of representation.

Drawing on interdisciplinary schools of thought and modes of close textual analysis across film and media studies, cultural studies, and sociology, it addresses and analyzes. Global Bollywood 2. The Transnational Stars of Hindi Cinema 3. The Homeland and the Diaspora 4. Gender and Sexuality: Bollywood Ish-tyle. A ceasefire agreement, signed in February , was followed by six rounds of peace talks. The contributions are based upon extensive field research and written by leading Sri Lankan and international researchers and practitioners.

Introduction Goodhand, Korf and Spencer 2. Waiting for Godot? Domestic Security and the "Shadow War" C. Smith Political Dynamics 5. Nationalist Politics of the South D. Rampton and A. Welikala 6. Politics of the North-East L. Philipson and Y. Thangarajah 7. A Voice in the Peace Process? Political Spaces of Muslims N. Lewera and Ismail Socio-Economic Dynamics 8. Aiding Peace? Muddling the Peace Process? Civil Society and the Peace Process Sarravanmuttu Drawing on rich empirical data, the author shows that CSR in India cannot be conceptualized in ethnocentric terms.

The book is a valuable contribution to the literature on CSR, and as such will be of interest to scholars of Asian Studies, business and development studies. Ethics and Market in the Context of Globalization 3. Trusteeship: Inputs from Gandhi and Gandhians 4. CSR in India case studies 7. Challenging dominant social theories of caste, this book addresses questions of how caste survives the system that gave rise to it and adapts to new demands of capitalism and democracy. Based on original fieldwork among an artisanal caste in central India, the author shows how the terrain of culture captured by a new grammar of caste revitalizes castes as cultural communities so that the culture of a caste is produced, organized and naturalized in the process of transforming jati fetishized blood and kinship into samaj fetishized culture.

Castes are shown to not be homogenous cultural wholes but sites of hegemony where class, gender and hierarchy overdetermine the meanings and materiality of caste. Arguing that there now exists a new casteism in India paralleling a new racism built less on biology and descent and more on purported cultural differences and their rights to exist, the author locates an incipient multiculturalism of castes in India which emerges within the cultural logic of globalization and governance of difference.

This book is an extended critique and a search for an alternative view of caste and anti-casteist politics. Artisans Part 1: Producing Identities 3. Culture 4. Community Part 2: Reproducing Inequalities 5. Overdetermination 6. This book presents the most comprehensive analysis of the Kerala Model of Social Development to date. The model has often been identified as one worth emulating because it is seen to have taken the state to the zenith of human development and democratic governance.

Using an interdisciplinary approach, the book sheds new light on the paradoxes of the Indian state and its model of economic development. The book provides a consolidated exploration and critique of the Kerala model, which usually has been portrayed as linear with the grand narrative of progress, development and democracy. Chapters discuss the past and present dimensions of the Kerala experience from a historical and political-economic perspective, thus providing a fresh understanding of the emerging concerns in the state and the construction of an ethically viable development agenda, eschewing the scourge of social inequity.

A significant contribution to the literature on development, democracy and the state, it analyses the complex interconnectedness of the various political-economic and socio-cultural domains involved in these experiences. Kerala Model: Situating the Critique K. Rammohan 3. Reghu 4. Reforms, Capabilities and the Kerala Model M. Oommen 7. Caroline Wilson 8. Ravi Raman Sreekumar Centering on the movement from villages to cities in South Asia, and in India in particular, the book argues the case for more nuanced theories and empirical inquiries informed by novel theoretical perspectives, taking into account social structure and pluralistic social relations.

Background, Motivation and Literature Review 2. Networks in the Traditional Economy: Empirics 5. Concluding Remarks. Drawing on original data collected in the two states of Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal, the authors first present the multiple ways in which social class impinges on the educational system, educational processes and educational outcomes.

In the second part of the book, issues around autonomy and accountability are explored via an analysis of the position of teachers within the educational hierarchy, and by looking at the various possibilities of making teachers accountable. The last part centres on the learning process, with a particular focus on the classroom.

The conclusion includes recommendations that are related to the necessity for a larger debate and normative framework, which includes private schools as possible partners in the pursuing of a public good for which a public entity should take some responsibility, and in conjuncture to that, the necessity to move from government action and responsibilities to a broader concept of public action.

Teachers 3. Parents 4. Centralization and Decentralization 6. The Learning Process 8. Textbooks and Curriculum 9. The book explains why unions in Sri Lanka illustrate a much broader phenomenon of the global South in general, where most workers operate outside the terrain of formal labour markets. The author identifies key theoretical dimensions taken by unions and labour groupings, and then provides three case studies — nurses, tea plantation workers, garment factory workers that show how these dimensions operate in practice.

The country the book examines, Sri Lanka, despite the lack of scholarly attention it deserves, is very much in the news as a potential tourist destination or another Southern state entrenched in ethnic violence and human rights violations. The book shows the roots of those conflicts not just in the policies adopted by the state and those with power, but also in the actions taken and not taken by oppositional groups, particularly by trade unions.

By connecting theory closely with evidence, the book illustrates how the empowerment of workers emerges from a self-transformation of unions, with a global sense of local places. Using the case study of Bangladesh and based on a long term participatory observation method, the book establishes that the success stories of the microcredit programme are blown out of proportion. The dynamics of collective responsibility for repayment of loans by a group of women borrowers — usually seen to be a tool for success of microcredit — is in fact no less repressive than traditional debt collectors.

Microcredit does produce a kind of disciplined self, but recipients also employ their own agency in resisting this disciplinary power. Results also show that the neoliberal policy of privatisation of welfare enables capitalism to extend its control to the poorest, most deprived of the world without breaking down the cultural barriers which keep women subjugated.

This book denies the universal applicability of the microcredit model to the causes and alleviation of the conditions of the poor, and, as it represents an aid practitioner working within Bangladesh questioning that universal applicability, it stands to make a worthwhile contribution to development debates, challenging adherents to more closely specify those conditions under which microcredit does indeed have validity.

The Empowerment Project 2. Microcredit as Empowerment Strategy 3. Unpacking Microcredit Discourses 4. Envisioning Microcredit 6. Through a local comparison of ethnic and religious militancy she also updates the current situation of social and cultural change in Karachi, which is dominantly framed in terms of Islamist radicalization and modernization. In her examination, governance and civil society issues are integrated with the political and psychological dimensions of mobilization processes and violence at micro-, meso- and macro- levels.

This book injects a critical and innovative voice into the ongoing debates about the nature and meaning of radicalization and violence, as well as the specific implications it has for similar, contemporary conflicts in Pakistan and the developing world. The Transformation 4. Partition Reprised: Grievance, Unification and Violence 5. Women in the Homeland 6. Jamaat E Islami and the Ijt in Liaquatabad 7.

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This book examines how literature by those who remained Pakistanis acts as a cultural response to the threat the war posed to a nationalist identity. It provides an analysis of the writing by Pakistani authors in their attempt to deal with the radical shock of the war and shows how fiction about the war helps readers imagine what the paring down of the country means for any abiding articulation of a Pakistani group identification.

The author discusses English-and Urdu-language fictions in the context of the historical debate about Pakistani nationalism, including how such nationalism informs literary culture, and in the contemporary interest in official apologies for the past. The author organises the literary analysis around four key issues: the domestic sphere and the family; the territorial limits of citizenship; multiculturalism, class, and nationalist history; and diasporic imaginings of the nation.

These issues resonate across the fictions in both languages and the author's analysis of them traces how these works grapple with changing notions of what it means to be Pakistani after the civil war and offers an interesting discussion to studies in South Asia. Introduction: The 'Deep Wounds' of Nations 2.

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Domestic Violence: At Home in the Nation 5. Unfinished Business: Designs Against the Nation 7. After the turn of the century, these movements entered a new phase with some groups launching armed rebellions and demanding separate territories. Ethnic mobilization and conflict is threatening to disrupt the transition that began with the comprehensive peace agreement reached between the government and the Maoist rebels in November In this context, this book analyses the rise in ethnic mobilization, the dynamics and trajectories of these movements, and their consequences for Nepal.

Contributions offer cultural, political and sociological approaches to understanding the roots of ethnopolitical mobilization and conflicts between diverse groups, the reasons for the increase in mobilization and violent activities, and the political and social effects of these movements. For the first time, the book addresses the question of nationalism in Nepal by bringing together empirical contributions on key issues in identity production in a comparative perspective. It is an influential volume in South Asian studies and studies of nationalism and identity more broadly.

Mollica Dastider With a focus on the Indian subcontinent, the author demonstrates how the state itself is involved in the construction of a gendered identity, and how control of women and their sexuality is central to the nationbuilding project. She applies a critical feminist approach to two major conflicts in the Indian subcontinent - the Partition of India in and the Liberation War of Bangladesh in — and offers suggestions for addressing historical injustices and war crimes in the context of modern Bangladesh.

Addressing how the social and political elites were able to construct and legitimize a history of the state that ignored these issues, the author suggests a critical re-examination of the history of the creation of Bangladesh which takes into account the rise of the Islamic right and their involvement in war crimes. Looking at the impact that notions of nation-state and nationalism have on women from a critical feminist perspective, the book will be an important addition to the literature on gender studies, international relations and South Asian politics.

The Politics of Nationalism and Nationbuilding 2. Gendered Nationbuilding 5. Frozen in Time? War Crimes, Justice and Political Forgiveness 6. The price of that nationalism in Sri Lanka is the current agonizing split between Sinhalese and Tamil. This is the first study that combines the dynamics of constitutionalism with the orbit of historical, political and anthropological scholarship on the cosmology of Sinhalese Buddhism and its relation to Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism. It explores four cases of legal-constitutional moments and offers a unique contribution to the politics and history of devolution in Sri Lanka.

Galactic Polities and the Decentralization of Power 5. Citizenship and the Approach of the Other 7. Language and EthnoLinguistic Nationalism 8. Cosmology, Constitutionalism and the Tamil as Other 9. Decentralization, Federalism and the Cosmology of Buddhism.

Conclusion: The Buddha does not have to Return to the Centre. This book provides a broad-ranging analysis of the growth and impact of "political Islam" in Bangladesh, and reactions to it. Grounded in empirical data, experts on Bangladesh examine the changing character of Bangladeshi politics since , with a particular focus on the convergence of governance, Islamism and militancy. They examine the impacts of Islamist politics on education, popular culture and civil society, and the regional and extraregional connections of the Bangladeshi Islamist groups.

Bringing together journalists and academics - all of whom have different professional and methodological backgrounds and field experiences which impact upon these issues from different vantage. It argues that the political environment of Bangladesh, the appeal of Islamist ideology to the general masses and the dynamic adaptability of Islamist organizations all demonstrate that Bangladesh will continue to focus the attention of policy makers and analysts alike.

This is a timely, incisive and original explanation of the rise of political Islam and Islamic militancy in Bangladesh. Political Violence in Bangladesh 3. Who are the Islamists? Who are the Militants? Bangladeshi Civil Society and Islamist Politics 6. Islamist Politics and Education 7. Islamist Politics and Popular Culture 8. Regional and Extraregional Dimensions.

It is clear that liberalization as state policy has complex forms of regulation and deregulation inbuilt, and these policies have resulted in dramatic increases in productivity and economic wealth but also generated spectacular new forms of inequality between social groups, regions, and sectors. Through a detailed examination of the Indian state, the contributors - all experts in their respective fields - explore questions such as: Have the new inequalities resulted in greater social unrest and violence?

How has the meaning of citizenship changed? What will the long-term effects of regional economic imbalances be on migration, employment, and social welfare? Will increasing federalism result in new problems? Will smaller governments be more effective in providing basic necessities such as clothing, housing, food, water, and sanitation to citizens? What does liberalization mean to Indians in cities and villages, in small towns, and metropolises, in poor, middle class, or wealthy homes? Are concepts like social capital, decentralization, private enterprise, and grass-roots globalization effective in analyzing the post-liberalization state, or are new concepts needed?

By focusing on what specifically has changed about the state after liberalization in India, this volume will shed light on comparative questions about the process of neoliberal restructuring across the world. As such, it will be of interest to scholars of a variety of disciplines, including sociology, anthropology, political science, geography, international studies, public policy, environmental studies and economics.

On the Enchantment of the State 2. States of Empowerment 4. Poverty Knowledge and Poverty Action in India 6. Becoming Entrepreneurial Subjects: Neoliberalism and Media. Edited by Dennis B. The reconstruction process was soon hampered by political patronage, by the competing efforts of hundreds of foreign humanitarian organizations, and by the ongoing civil war. The book is framed within this larger political and social context, offering descriptions and comparisons between two regions southwest vs.

Approaching the issue from four disciplinary perspectives - anthropology, demography, political science, and disaster studies chapters by experts in the field analyse regional and ethnic patterns of post-tsunami reconstruction according to different sectors of Sri Lankan society. Demonstrating the key importance of comprehending the local cultural contexts of disaster recovery processes, the book is a timely and useful contribution to the existing literature. Introduction Michele R. Gamburd and Dennis B. McGilvray 2.

Gamburd 5. Frerks 9. Conclusion Michele R. It examines the issue and response to the haze, the sickening and deadly cloud of smoky pollution caused by widespread burning of land and forests in Indonesia, which has posed one of the most challenging environmental threats to the ten countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASEAN. It links local problems such as poverty, democratization, land rights, conflicts and forest fires to the regional and global problems such as the haze, biodiversity depletion and climate change.

Based on in-depth original research, the author integrates this case study in international relations, political science, and compariative political analysis literatures and contributes to a better understanding of processes within the regional organization. Rise of a Regime 4. Region on Fire 5. Issue Linkages 6. Effects of Cooperation 7. Using East Timor as a case study, it offers reflections on transitional justice administered by a UN transitional administration. This book provides a gendered analysis of transitional justice as a discipline.

It is also one of the first studies to offer a comprehensive case study of how women engaged in the whole range of transitional mechanisms in a post-conflict state, i. The book reveals the political dynamics in a post-conflict setting around gender and questions of justice, and reframes of the meanings of success and failure of international interventions in the light of them. Introduction: A luta continua! The fight continues! Sexing the Subject of Transitional Justice 3. Conclusion: 'Operation Love' Appendices Bibliography.

Drawing on rich ethnographic fieldwork from Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, and Cambodia, the book examines both dominant constructions of masculinity and the ways in which marginal men engage with these. Introduction Lenore Lyons and Michele Ford 2. The impact East Timor has had, and continues to have, across a range of fields, belies the small size of its population and territory. This book examines the key challenges of national building in Timor-Leste in the ten years since the independence referendum.

It addresses key issues in the development and reconstruction of an independent East Timor, highlighting its successes and its failures, as well as a set of unresolved issues confronting the state. East Timor provides a clear example of the challenges of post-conflict nation-building. The author examines the history of debates and conflict over issues of national identity, national history, cultural heritage, language policy, and relationships between distinct regions, generations, and language groups.

Interdisciplinary in its approach, the analysis links qualitative studies of cultural nationalism with quantitative analyses of popular attitudes to national identity. Constitutional and elite narratives of national identity 3. Surveying popular attitudes to national identity 4. History curriculum and history teaching 5.

Managing the cultural heritage of the resistance 6. Decentralisation and nation-building 8. Modern and traditional political authority. This book presents a comprehensive insight into the politics of reconstruction and development in Sri Lanka. Based on extensive empirical fieldwork, it elaborates how development was shaped by interplay and cooperation, but also by the disparities and conflicts between a variety of local and intervening actors, such as local organizations and civil society, LTTE, Government of Sri Lanka, international development cooperation and the Tamil diaspora.

Focusing on the ceasefire which was negotiated between the Government of Sri Lanka and the separatist LTTE in and which lasted until , the author integrates findings from development sociology with new perspectives on the transnationalization and the migration-development-nexus. The book provides a detailed analysis of the emerging development visions and perspectives and makes an innovative contribution by linking the analysis of local reconstruction with contemporary phenomena of transnationalization, diasporization, and globalization.

Who Does Development? Cooperation, Coalition, Conflict: Shaping Transformations 6. Development, Reconstruction and Social Change 7. Translocal Development Visions between Peace and War. This book provides a chronological analysis of the Princely State in colonial times and its post-colonial legacies. It focuses on one of the largest and most important of these states, the Princely State of Mysore, and offers a novel interpretation and thorough investigation of the relationship of king and subject in South Asia.

Using a combination of historical and anthropological methodologies and based upon substantial archival and field research, the author argues that the idea of kingship lived on in South India and continues to play a vital and important role in contemporary South Indian social and political life. Introduction: The Kingdom of the Imaginary 2. Caste Ideology and the Urs 3. Becoming Gentlemen 4. The Palace and Politics of Honour 7. The book argues that owing to this plurality on both sides their relationship was not an uniformly confrontational one.

Different aspects of the pre-existing healing praxes articulated with different aspects of colonial modernity through a range of ways ranging from mimesis to confrontation. It will be of interest to academics working in the field of Indian history, the history of medicine and public health. Introduction: Medical Modernity in Colonial Bengal 2. Reading the Pulse: The Politics of Tradition 4. The Magic of Modernity: Islamiya Tantra 7.

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Conclusion: Healing Modernities. Focusing on the British prohibition of sati in , the author shows how the debates that preceded this legislation have been instrumental in setting the terms of post-colonial debates about sati, as well as of defining the terms and parameters of British involvement in Indian social and religious issues more generally.

Victimhood and Volition: British Encounters with the Satimata 6. It discusses the different models of law and development, including both the developmental state model of the s and the neo-liberal model of the s, and shows how development has worked out in practice in relation to these models in a range of Asian countries, including Japan, Korea, China, Thailand, Singapore, India and Mongolia.

Particular themes examined include constitutionalism, judicial and legal reform, labour law, the growing importance of private rights, foreign investment and the international law of development. Trubek 2. Sornarajah 6. Vietnam, starting later, also with a socialist-influenced legal system, has followed a similar reform path, and other countries too are now looking towards China and Vietnam as models for development. If so, can it be flexibly applied to social and economic conditions in different countries? If it cannot be applied to a culturally and politically similar country like Vietnam, is the model transportable elsewhere in the world?

Introduction: Michael Dowdle. Chapter 6 Achievements and challenges in developing an administrative law system in contemporary Vietnam Vu Doan Ket and Matthieu Salomon. Part III Public access to justice. Introduction: Nicholas Booth. Part IV Commercial regulatory reforms. Introduction: Donald Clarke.

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Bui Bich Thi Lien. Part VII Legal diffusion: the role of non-state actors in shaping the regulatory environment. For much of the global south, however, the promise that markets will bring increased standards of living and emancipation from tyranny has been an empty one. Instead, neoliberalisation has increased the gap between rich and poor and unleashed a firestorm of social ills.

This book deals with the post-conflict geographies of violence and neoliberalisation in Cambodia. Applying a geographical analysis to contemporary Cambodian politics, the author employs notions of neoliberalism, public space, and radical democracy as the most substantive components of its theoretical edifice. The book demonstrates Cambodian perspectives on the role of public space in Cambodia's process of democratic development and explains the implications of violence and its relationship with neoliberalism.

Taking into account the transition from war to peace, authoritarianism to democracy, and command economy to a free market, this book offers a critical appraisal of the political economy in Cambodia. Introduction: Setting the Stage for Neoliberalisation 2. Conclusion: Sowing the Seeds of a New Revolution? It opened the way for democracy, but also for the proliferation of political Islam, which the New Order had discouraged or banned.

Many of the issues raised by Muslim groups concerned matters pertaining to gender and the body. The author argues that public debates on Islam and Gender in contemporary Indonesia only partially concern religion, and more often refer to shifting moral conceptions of the masculine and feminine body in its intersection with new class dynamics, national identity, and global consumerism.

By approaching the contentious debates from a cultural sociological perspective, the book links the theoretical domains of body politics, the mediated public sphere, and citizenship. Placing the issue of gender and Islam in the context. As such, it will be of great interest to scholars of anthropology, sociology, and gender studies. Muslim Politics and Democratization 2. The Debate on Female Leadership 3. Formations of Public Piety 4.

Contesting Masculinity 5. Sexualized Bodies and Morality Talk. Conclusion: Negotiating the Citizen-Subject. This book presents a comprehenisve overview of how China's rise is perceived in different countries and regions of the world. The countries and regions covered are very wide ranging including China's neighbours, other world powers, the parts of China not part of mainland China - Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau - and regions of the world where China is having an unexpected impact, such as the Middle East. Changing perceptions of China in the western media generally are also covered.

Overall, the book demonstrates that whilst many countries and regions are much more positive about China's rise than they were previously, much nervousness and concern persist. Too Close for Comfort? Political and Economic Friction between China and Japan 9. Indian Perspectives on China: Concerns and Prospects This book examines the transformation and the multifaceted nature of the relationship between US and China in the twenty-first century, and argues that it is more competitive than co-operative, even in areas that are amenable to co-operation such as trade and nuclear non-proliferation.

It covers all the important issues including politics, security, nuclear deterrence, military modernization, energy, trade and economic interaction, and Asia-Pacific power reconfiguration. US global supremacy Chapter 2. US and the export of liberal democracy Chapter 3. US and the world economic system Chapter 4. US and the Taiwan issue Chapter 5. The US-Japanese alliance Chapter 6.

The North Korean nuclear issue Chapter 7. It focuses in particular on understanding the nuclear proliferation networks that enabled small and middle ranking powers such as Pakistan and North Korea to pursue nuclear weapons programs. Three networks are included: the Soviet network which allowed for the proliferation of nuclear technologies to India, and also to North Korea the Chinese network which provided missile technology to North Korea, and nuclear technology to Pakistan the A.

Khan network which transferred nuclear weapons technology from Pakistan to North Korea, and missile technology from North Korea to Pakistan. Chung Min Lee considers the pressures upon other Asian powers to go nuclear, particularly Japan and South Korea as a response to the North Korea nuclear program, and Taiwan as a response to China; the role of key forces including the rise of new asymmetrical military capabilities in Asian militaries, and the complex interplay between failing states, weapons of mass destruction and transnational terror groups.

Introduction 1. Proliferation Before and After the A. Khan Network 3. This book firstly explores the theoretical and conceptual basis of human security, before focusing on the region itself. It shows how human security has been taken up as a central part of security policy in individual states in Southeast Asia, as well as in the regional security policy within the Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASEAN. The book discusses domestic challenges for human security including the insurgencies in southern Thailand, the Philippines and Indonesia.

By focusing on the ongoing changes and efforts to achieve human security in Southeast Asia, this book contributes to theoretical debates on human security as well as regional studies on Southeast Asia. Domestic Challenges for Human Security 4. Regional Challenges for Human Security 5. The book considers internal debates within the three countries; zones of conflict, including northeast and northwest south Asia, the Himalayas and the Indian Ocean; and the impact of developments in nuclear weapons and missile technology.

Importance of Subject 2. The Triangle at Work in War — , , 5. Late s — Present. The Future: Adapting or Learning from the Past. This book examines the dynamics of nuclear deterrence in the Second Nuclear Age. It focuses on South Asia, as it is the most dominant and, to some, the most dangerous case of contemporary nuclear stand-off, where deterrence can fail. With novel explanations and fresh insights, this book sheds new light on nuclear deterrence in the Second Nuclear Age and is a timely and valuable contribution to the nuclear scholarship on South Asia.

It considers highly topical implications for the region of possible strategic competition between China and India - the rising naval powers of Asia - with a possible naval "arms race" emerging between these countries both with naval force development and operations. Even as the US-India defence relationship continues to deepen, the. The sea lines of communication SLOCs through Southeast Asian waters constitute vital "choke points" between the Indian and Pacific Oceans carrying essential energy supplies for China and other Northeast Asian countries.

Any strategic competition between China and India has implications for other major maritime players in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, especially Australia, the Republic of Korea and Japan, as well as the US. This book identifies possible cooperative and confidence-building measures that may contribute to enhanced relations between these two major powers and dampen down the risks associated with their strategic competition. Chinese Perspective 7. The Korean Perspective 8. Chinese Naval Developments Indian Perspective US Perspective Japanese Perspective Australian Perspective Scope for Maritime Cooperation and Confidence Building The author analyses the relevance of these debates in the context of contemporary Asia and combines an analysis of significant social theorists with an application of these debates to social, political and cultural contexts.

Intimacy, reflexivity and identity are examined in the context of cultured, gendered and ethnic Asian identities. Further debates examined include intimacy and equality in heterosexual relationships; sex and singlehood as sources of tension in cosmopolitan Asia; and the impact of nationalism and state policy on procreation, gender ideology and human rights.

Drawing on empirical research, case studies, global reports, media and academic literature, the book provides a relevant, wide-ranging and contemporary analysis of the debates on Asian culture and society. Intimacy, Reflexivity and Identity in Contemporary Asia 3. The author moves away from assumptions that the state can primarily be associated with the top levels of government, and looks at citizens' approaches to local level bureaucracies and police.

The central argument of the book is that deeply 'institutionalised' corruption in India could only have come about through the exercise of particular long term customs of interaction between agencies of the state - government servants and police, and their interactions with local politicians. Because the social hierarchies that condition such interactions are complicated by individual and family connections to state employment, periods of traumatic state transformation lead to a reconfiguration in the meaning of corruption in the local state. Based on principal primary sources and extensive field interviews, this book will be of interest to academics working on political science and Indian and South Asian history.

Administrative power and public morality: hierarchy and corruption in late colonial and ealry independent UP 3. Religion, caste and government servant recruitment s - s 4. Imagining corruption: languages and symbolism in administrative and police power in north India 5. The rise of anti-corruption: government servants and 'citizens', - 6. The bureaucracy, police and political change: maintaining the 'steel frame' in the s and s 7. Spinning was seen as an economic and political activity that could bring together the diverse population of South Asia, and allow the formerly elite nationalist movement to connect to the broader Indian population.

This book looks at the politics of spinning both as a visual symbol and as a symbolic practice. It traces the genealogy of spinning from its early colonial manifestations in Company painting to its appropriation by the anti-colonial movement. This complex of visual imagery and performative ritual had the potential to overcome labour, gender, and religious divisions and thereby produce an accessible and effective symbol for the Gandhian anti-colonial movement.

Action and Identity: Colonial Representations of Spinning 2. Capturing the Wheel in Motion: Photography and Spinning 3. Gender and the Modern Charkha 5. National Symbols: Gandhi and the Spinning Wheel. It inspired similar radical movements in other South Asian countries such as Nepal. Arguing that the history and memory of the Naxalbari movement is fraught with varied gendered experiences of political motivation, revolutionary activism, and violence, this book analyses the participation of women in the movement and their experiences.

The book places the movement into the postcolonial history of South Asia. It makes a significant contribution to the understanding of radical communist politics in South Asia, particularly in relation to issues concerning the role of women in radical politics. Introduction: In Search of the Definition of Naxalbari 2. Through the Looking Glass of Gender 3. Multiple Patriarchies: Politics, Power, and Masculinity 4. Weapons and Wounds: The Discourse of Violence 7. It was a major event in South Asian and British colonial history that significantly challenged imperialism in India.

Also studied are popular struggles involving tribals and outcastes, and the way outcastes in the south of India locate the Rebellion. Interdisciplinary in focus and based on a range of untapped source materials and rare, printed tracts, this book questions conventional wisdom. The comprehensive introduction traces the different historiographical approaches to the Great Rebellion, including the imperialist, nationalist, marxist and subaltern scholarship.

While questioning typical assumptions associated with the Great Rebellion, it argues that the Rebellion neither began nor ended in Sinha 3. Rama Chandra Reddy 6. William F. Departing from the existing historiography of Indian nationalism, it analyses the extent to which Congress elites engaged in processes intended to foster nation-building in India. Rejecting the long-standing premise that the Congress primarily sought to generate a national identity, the author hypothesizes that Congress elites knowingly grappled with the creation of a national governmentality.

He argues that they distanced themselves from lethargic nation-building exercises and instead opted to support more practical and more feasible statebuilding efforts. It presents evidence which shows that Congress elites began to perceive themselves and their organization as an emerging post-colonial state.

Processes Fueling the Development of the State and Governance 2. Indian Democracy and Civil Liberties 3. Opposing Imperialism through Foreign Affairs 4. Planning for Economic Liberation 5. Imagining a Unique Federal State 6. Erosion of the Ideal: Defense and National Government 7. At the heart of the reform are changes in the employment relationship, where state control has been superceded by market relationships. These reforms have had far-reaching implications for many aspects of everyday life in Chinese society.

This book appraises the impact of the economic reforms on the employment relationship and, in turn, examines the effects on individual workers and their families, including salaries, working conditions and satisfaction, job security and disparities based on location, gender, age, skill, position and migrant status.

In particular, it focuses on how changes in. It explores the changing human resource management practices and employment relations in different types of enterprises: including State-Owned Enterprises, Foreign-Owned Enterprises and Domestic Private Enterprises; throughout different industries, focusing especially on textiles, clothing and footwear and the electronics industry; and in different regions and cities within China Beijing, Haerbin, Lanzhou, Hangzhou, Wuhan and Kunming.

Overall, this book provides a detailed account of the everyday implications of economic reform for individuals and families in China. Economic reform and its industrial and social impact 3. Management, workers and conditions of employment 4. Worker representation and emerging roles for trade unions 5. Enterprise performance and intangible management 6. Market-oriented economic reform and the quality of working life 7.

Work, households and livelihoods 8. Economic reform and its impact on management, enterprises and workers. Making an important contribution to the growing amount of available literature on gender and globalization, the author analyzes the struggles that women workers have been engaged in over their work, wages and service conditions and in their personal lives. Conceptualizing Gender and Economic Restructuring 2. Informalization at the Workplace and Vulnerability of the Household.

Based on detailed empirical research and statistical analysis, it examines the development of the Japanese economy before and after the Second World War until today. In particular, it explores a debate that has divided economic historians in Japan and has played a major role in current debates about economic reform: whether the modern Japanese economy is largely a construct of events during the Second World War, or if instead it is a natural part of the evolution from a much older system.

This debate has important ramifications for understanding not only how the modern Japanese economy came into existence and its fundamental workings, but also why Japan was so successful and the reasons it is facing problems today. It challenges externally imposed views of the Japanese economy and its success, for example that its high rates of growth were principally driven by export growth and uniquely favourable conditions in the world economy in the post-war period. Despite its strong resonance in academic and policy-making circles in Japan, the extensive literature on this topic has been neglected by international scholars.

This book brings that material to an English language audience for the first time. It also adds to that debate, arguing that the events of the Second World War did have critical lasting consequences and did not merely amount to an aberration of a long term trend, but that other important factors have also exerted an impact, for example the change in the nature of the Japanese economy as it shifted from a small economy in the international system and therefore much less able to deal with a competitive international economy through government intervention , to a large closed one which was much more insulated and less exposed to changes in international conditions.

Critical Historical Developments in the World Economy 2. Continuity and Discontinuity 5. The End of High Speed Growth. It sheds light on countries that are gradually realising this situation, with examples from many parts of the world, including Eastern Europe, Africa and especially Asia, where a great deal is being made of innovation and intellectual property to stimulate economic growth. It discusses how these successful models can be utilised by less developed emerging economies such as those in Africa, where IP development is almost non-existent or, in some cases, explored only superficially.

It provides a comprehensive assessment of the ways in which innovation, protection and enforcement of IP laws can help newly emerging economies achieve economic growth without destroying natural and human resources, and move ahead from the current global financial crisis. Cross border Intellectual Property and theoretical models 2.

One of the key sources of human capital to the global economy is India, and the main destinations for Indian professionals has been Western developed economies, the Middle East and Gulf regions and East and Southeast Asia. This book examines the trends and motivations of human capital flows from India to Southeast Asia. Focusing in particular on Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand, the three largest ASEAN trading partners with India, the book provides an analysis of Indian labor in a variety of sectors including the information technology IT sector, academia, banking, oil and gas.

Based on empirical data, the book provides an analysis of current trends in the flow of human capital from India to Southeast Asia. It will be of interest to policy makers, businessmen, students, analysts and academics in the field of Asian studies, foreign relations, human capital and labour migration. Rise of Knowledge Based Economies 3. Global Talent Crunch 4. India Rising and Human Capital Flows 5. Southeast Asia — Shortage of Talented Individuals 6. Singapore — Foreign Talent 8. Malaysia 9. Thailand The crisis changed Asia and the world; currency depreciations, personal and state indebtedness, mass unemployment and rioting brought the paternalistic capitalist phase to an end in Asia.

The decade following the economic crisis has seen a swift response, with the major restructuring of Asian economies, improved corporate governance, banks recapitalized, more attention paid to the environment and foreign exchange reserves restored so the IMF became redundant in Asia. Dividing the countries that emerged from the crisis into three categories — the Insecure Rich, the New Aspirants for Prosperity and the Danger Zone — Noman analyses the complex Asian recovery and future challenges within the framework of Responsible Development, an agenda for Asia that emphasizes the simultaneous challenge of building sustainable democracies, a viable environment and an equitable economy.

Covering the many related issues that pose a threat to Asian economic stability — climate change, religious fascism, inequality and hunger — this book will have particular relevance in the areas of development studies, economics, international politics and Asian studies. Freedom and Responsibility 2. The Loss of Egalitarian Capitalism 5. Part 2: Expansion of Freedoms 6. Investing in Just Democracies 7. Responsible Development in a Vulnerable World. At the onset of the current economic crisis, the issue is of even greater significance to developing countries in light of protectionism gaining strength in the global economy.

This book examines the connection between trade liberalisation and poverty using theory and evidence. The case studies cover all South Asian countries as the region provides an excellent for a comparative study given the widespread emphasis on liberalisation reforms across all countries over the past two decade, significant inter-country differences in terms of the timing and comprehensiveness of reforms, and the heavy concentration of world poverty in the region. This book is the first comprehensive analysis of evidence on the link between trade liberalisation and poverty in South Asia and highlights important policy issues.

Introduction Prema-chandra Athukorala, Jayatilleke S. On the morning of the first day, there will be a meeting of the Finance Subcommittee of the Standing Committee. The Earth Negotiations Bulletin summary report of the meeting will be available on this website on Monday, 21 July The scorecard ranked Britain as the developed nation that has done the most to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, while France and Germany are close behind.

Germany was praised for its investment in renewable energy. The study criticized low energy efficiency in the U. The study also analyzed -- but did not rank -- five of the world's fastest growing economies: Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa. Lightning ignited heavy brush in a small rugged canyon eventually becoming known as the Gallery Fire. Nearly 90, acres of wilderness have been destroyed.

In the early stages of the Gallery Fire it was not clear whether a group of captive California condors should be disturbed and moved from their flight pens in a remote area, just south of Big Sur. The eight birds, one adult male mentor and seven juveniles, are part of a reintroduction program administrated by the Ventana Wildlife Society. Hoi, the adult condor, mentors the youngsters, teaching them social etiquette and survival skills.

By Sunday morning, the fire was shifting directions and gaining ground. The call was made to evacuate the condors. The only way they could be rescued was by helicopter. Fire resources were spread thin tending to the near blazes in California. Having called upon the Coast Guard once before for a sea lion rescue off Point Dume, I decided to give them a call and they were eager to help if only they could find an available air crew and get approval for the mission.

By p. Joining him was Mike Tyner and Henry Bonifas. In over degree temperature, the young men made their way down the dirt road toward the condors—a 2. The team worked quickly to capture and cage each of the nearly pound birds. Over three hours passed before the first group of five condors was airlifted out of danger. The Wildlife Society and Pinnacles have collaborated on condor recovery since The fire swept across the canyon two days after the evacuation.

While the rescued condors are safely housed at Pinnacles, attention has turned to the fate of the wild-flying condors, including three chicks. The condors are fitted with radio transmitters. Joe and his team are tracking the birds daily, hoping to confirm that all forty or so birds are still alive. At this point, one female, Condor , is unaccounted for. She is the mother of one of the chicks. Joe spotted her in a snag near the facility as the last of the birds were evacuated. Condors, like most diurnal birds, do not fly at night. She may have stayed roosting as the fire advanced.

As for the three chicks, we know that two are safe in their nests. The third—its condition is unknown. As for the facility, with luck, it survived. If not, it will mean starting over to rebuild the enclosures and research facility. Nine Mexican wolves have died in the wild since the beginning of Necropsy results from the Service's wildlife forensic laboratory are still pending for one wolf.

The fate of AM has yet to be determined. Mexican wolves are identified by numbers preceded with an 'F' to show adult female gender and an 'M' for adult male gender. The 'A' signifies the wolf was the lead, or alpha member, of the pack. Generally only the alpha members of a pack mate and bear young. Three of the Japanese snow monkeys introduced to the Highland Wildlife Park, near Aviemore, as a major tourist attraction have died. A second animal had to be put to sleep and a third one drowned. Iain Valentine, RZSS head of animals, said the deaths followed a struggle for dominance between the first group and a second introduced later.

He said: "As a result, the alpha male from one group killed the alpha male in the other. Two other members of the group also died. Immediate follow-up studies are needed to document the proportion of birds infected with the parasite throughout the four-island distribution of the penguin, and to begin to estimate the impact of this parasite and consider approaches to disease control to prevent its spread across the penguin population and transmission to other bird species.

IUCN estimates a total current population of only 1, penguins. No workable flying machines have ever resembled nature's fliers. There is little comparison between a top of the range military chopper and the bumblebee, despite similar flight patterns. In an era in which engineers are increasingly exploiting designs from nature, understanding this paradox is becoming ever more important. Dr Jim Usherwood, from the Royal Veterinary College, has studied the reasons behind these differences in aerodynamics and concluded that scientists should, in this instance, be more hesitant before imitating nature.

Dr Usherwood believes the reason that flying creatures don't look like man made machines is all to do with the need to flap. So, the idea is that both wing shape and how wings are used can be understood better if the effort of flapping is remembered, which explains why vultures don't look like gliders, and most winged creatures, from insects to pigeons, fly so inefficiently. The animals clawed and chewed on the spools to retrieve the food. By concealing food in the paper spools, the animals were forced to figure out the most efficient way to get it out, an exercise that keeps them mentally and physically fit.

The program, sponsored by The Pantagraph and Cub Foods, is expected to continue at least for the remainder of the year. On Thursdays at 11 a.


  1. History of the mission of the United Brethren among the Indians in North America?
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Children taking part in the program get a bag of healthy treats such as raisins, pretzels and granola bars — but only after they sanitize their hands, another life lesson. There is downloadable desktop wallpaper featuring Mahal, a coloring page with a drawing contest for kids and a children's book version of Mahal's story entitled "Little Mahal and the Big Search for a Real Mom.

Allow two to three weeks for delivery. A portion of the proceeds will go toward orangutan rescue efforts. Horned Guan at St. The horned quan is one of the rarest birds in the world. Fewer than 1, remain in the wild in the cloud forests of Mexico and Guatemala. The only place in America where you can see them is at the St. Louis Zoo. But their most prominent feature is the 2-inch-long brilliant red horn — sticking straight up from the crown of their heads.

Apart from a recent field study conducted by Michael Macek, St. They live in two major isolated populations, one in Guatemala and another in Mexico, in high-altitude pine-oak cloud forests. The terrain is difficult — steep, slippery slopes — and the vegetation is so dense that you are much more likely to hear a horned guan than see one.

When disturbed, they scream with a heart-stopping, intense guttural shriek. The St. Louis Zoo was the first in the United States to display these birds. We work closely with three zoos in Mexico to study them. I recently visited one of them, Africam Safari in Puebla, Mexico, while on a trip to speak at a conference of zoo directors from 11 Latin American countries. Amy Camacho is the director of Africam Safari and Juan Cornejo is its curator of birds and international studbook keeper for the horned guan.

Only three of the 11 zoos in Mexico have been able to get them to breed. Louis Zoo was the first to successfully artificially inseminate a relative of the horned guan, the piping guan. Fighting and accidental injury after translocation are common causes of death in the black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis. Traditionally considered risk factors, rhino sex, age, and presence of resident conspecifics, were superseded by the risk posed by releases into smaller reserves.

The study appears in the Journal of Wildlife Management 72 5 —; Edinburgh Zoo officials will travel to China this month to continue talks about bringing a pair of giant pandas to Scotland. David Windmill, the chief executive of the Royal Zoological Society of Scotland RZSS and Iain Valentine, head of animals and conservation at the zoo, signed a letter of intent with officials at the Wolong Panda Conservation and Research Centre last May just a week before the earthquake hit the region.

Scientific American 60-Seconds Science Transcript

The zoo has sent money and communications equipment to help in the aftermath of the disaster. The Scotsman has learned they now plan to travel to China to see the impact of the earthquake at first hand and offer further assistance. City Heights attorney John Stump wants the city to reclaim the money, which would require voter approval.

Stump thinks the city-maintained park itself, not the nonprofit zoo, has the greater need for cash these days. The need for more funding is driving the current debate over forming a nonprofit conservancy to help oversee and raise donations for the park. A City Council committee didn't support the ballot proposal last month, when Stump asked for a November vote on the issue. He says he will take the issue to the entire City Council this month. If the council ignores his request, he would have to gather more than 86, signatures to force an election. Ralph Farnsworth or Doc, as he's known around the St.

Paul zoo, retired last week after more than 40 years of treating the animals. The year-old veterinarian said his career didn't come with much of a handbook, so he forged ahead using common sense, intestinal fortitude and animal tranquilizers. The problem with working with zoo animals, he said, is simple: If you get hurt, you probably get killed. Sometimes it's best to give nature a chance to be a healer. The project is funded by the Ocean Fund of Royal Caribbean International which was set up in to support marine conservation organizations in preserving the world's oceans.

The mission of the Ocean Fund is to support efforts to restore and maintain a healthy marine environment, minimize the impact of human activity on this environment, and promote awareness of ocean and coastal issues and respect for marine life. The book contains 28 essays from wild-animal veterinarians worldwide, and includes a page color insert with a photo of each featured animal or, if none is available, one of its species.

The book gets its title from the experience Spelman had with a one-horned rhinoceros named Mohan at the National Zoo. Mohan's feet repeatedly developed diseased tissue that had to be cut away, at times requiring anesthesia. When Spelman attended a lecture on wild rhinos, she realized Mohan's toenails were completely worn down from walking on hard ground in captivity, and another veterinarian suggested using epoxy to temporarily adhere aluminum shoes like those worn by horses and performed the task. Mohan's nails grew out, although the chronic infection slowly returned and he was moved to a swampier exhibit in a warmer climate.

Some stories take place in the wilds, not a zoo. Some birds, at least, keep together on their migratory journeys, flying in tandem even when they are meters or more apart. It is the first to confirm with statistical data what many ornithologists and observers had long suspected: Birds fly together in loose flocks during their nocturnal migration. Ronald Larkin, a professor of animal biology, conducted the new study with Robert Szafoni. After analyzing dozens of trials, the researchers determined that a significant proportion of the pairs of birds they had tracked were flying at the same altitude, at the same speed and in the same direction.

To determine whether the birds were just being swept passively along by prevailing winds or whether they were actively staying together, the researchers analyzed the flight patterns of insects and other arthropods occupying the same air space at the same time. These tiny creatures would be at the mercy of the wind and so would give the researchers a reliable picture of the pattern of air currents.

That analysis demonstrated that the birds were following their own course and were not simply being blown along by the wind. A comprehensive survey of coral biodiversity in Panama's Las Perlas Archipelago, published in the journal Environmental Conservation by researchers from the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and their colleagues, has resulted in clear conservation recommendations for a new coastal management plan. Our recommendations include large conservation units, "no take zones" and marine reserves, with an emphasis on the northern part of the archipelago, and extremely careful regulation of fishing, tourism and development," said Smithsonian staff scientist, Hector Guzman.

The other is the Galapagos. The authors conducted an extensive biodiversity inventory, determining coral distribution and species richness across the region. They counted a total of 57 coral species: 19 hard scleractinian corals and 38 soft corals octocorals. Koalas across Queensland are dying from the spread of an AIDS-like virus which weakens their immune system, and could become extinct within 15 years, a leading researcher says. On those figures, it should be considered a disease epidemic,'' Australian Wildlife Hospital research director Jon Hanger said.

The disease, known as koala retrovirus, was genetically sequenced by Dr Hanger in and has been linked to 80 per cent of deaths in captive koalas in Queensland from leukaemia, lymphoma, malignant tumours and immune deficiency disorders. Sea creatures have evolved over millions of years to maximise efficiency of movement through water. By studying the flippers, fins and tails of whales and dolphins, biologists and engineers have discovered some features of their structure that contradict long-held engineering theories. Dr Frank Fish will talk about the exciting impact that these discoveries on traditional industrial designs at the Experimental Biology's Annual Meeting in Marseille.

Some of his observations are already being applied to real life engineering problems, a concept known as biomimetics. The shape of whale flippers with one bumpy edge has inspired the creation of a completely novel design for wind turbine blades. This design has been shown to be more efficient and also quieter, but defies traditional engineering theories. The lesson from biomimicry is that unsteady flow and complex shapes can increase lift, reduce drag and delay 'stall', a dramatic and abrupt loss of lift, beyond what existing engineered systems can accomplish," Dr Fish advises.

The work centers on studies of vortices, tornado-shaped water formations that develop in the wake of the animals. These vortices are involved in the production of a jet in the wake of the dolphin that produces high thrust. By regulating the production of the vortices, the dolphin can maximize its efficiency while swimming.

He is a key player in identifying key areas for protection and hopes to establish a National Park in Ebo in Cameroon's Littoral Province. The area has a significant density of endemic plants and animal species. Primate species include the Drill Mandrillus leucophaeus , the Chimpanzee Pan troglodytes , Elephants Loxodonta Africana cyclotis , Gorilla Gorilla gorilla gorilla and African buffalo Syncerus caffer nanus. Unfortunately, these animal species have been exposed to incessant poaching activities.

Hunting communities have sprawled all over the area, further aggravating the poaching incidence. Qalqilya Zoo, on the western edge of the West Bank, is not mentioned in any guidebook. It's situated at the heart of Qalqilya, a Palestinian farming town whose produce was once purchased by both Israelis and Palestinians at its bustling souq market.

But that was before two intifadas armed uprisings and years of turmoil laid waste to the town's economy, leaving residents poverty stricken and confined behind razor-wire fences and concrete security walls. Yet here, in the first Hamas-led municipality, one gem has astonishingly remained intact: the last Palestinian zoo, complete with Dubi, its resident hippo.

Sami Khader, the Palestinian Territories' only zoo veterinarian. Khader also has lions' noses to scratch, a game of ball to play with a baby baboon named Rambo, and schoolchildren to shepherd around his own colorful, highly eccentric Natural History Museum. Animal stocks are slowly dwindling, and many of the creatures taxidermied in his museum -- including Brownie, a prize giraffe -- are those killed during periods of conflict. It started as a game preserve in when General Harry Trexler began purchasing small farms in Lowhill and North Whitehall Townships. He wanted to create a private hunting preserve.

Trexler, a local industrialist, used the land to protect elk, white- tailed deer and bison. But Trexler died in a car accident in and the acre preserve was given to the county. But, political wrangling and controversy about the proposal going against General Trexler's intentions forced Baker to drop the plan in In the years that followed the zoo almost closed, but a petition drive and public input at county meetings persuaded commissioners to accept proposals to lease the property.

The Lehigh Valley Zoological Society was formed and the county agreed to lease the zoo to the society in The master plan for the nature preserve is in fact that the elk and the bison would not be here in the long term, but because of the zoo's interest in both species, they are still part of the zoo. Staff is also working on increasing attendance, building new exhibits and delivering a high quality of care to all of the animals.

The U. Service Director H. Dale Hall said, "Partnering with the Government of Mexico in managing these grants will help protect the rich biological inheritance shared by our two nations. The funding is provided to work with the Government of Mexico in building the local capacity for biodiversity conservation and management. The grants will leverage over one million dollars in additional contributions from an array of partners, including the Government of Mexico and not-for profit organizations.

The two countries have a long history of cooperation aimed at protecting their important biological resources. This is true not only along the 2,mile border we share, but also the large number of migratory species which depend upon vital areas of habitat in both countries during their annual migrations," said Herb Raffaele, Chief of the Service's Division of International Conservation.

Using either reverse osmosis or distillation, an estimated 13, desalination plants operate throughout the world, with the highest concentration around the Mediterranean and Arabian seas. But few studies have tracked the ecological impact of these plants. At the end of the process, desalination plants that create a gallon of freshwater from every two gallons of seawater must find a way to dispose of the remainder.

The by-product water has roughly double the salinity of seawater, a concentration well beyond the tolerance of most marine organisms. A handful of relatively small ocean desalination plants exist in California, but the state's Coastal Commission is reviewing another 20 proposed projects on a case-by-case basis. A Poseidon project in Carlsbad, Calif.

In Carlsbad and Huntington Beach, Calif.


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  • Each project would produce 50 million gallons of drinking water per day, enough to serve , people. The best available scientific and commercial data indicate that the Concho water snake Nerodia paucimaculata has recovered. Therefore the U. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to remove delist the Concho water snake Nerodia paucimaculata from the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife, and accordingly, also remove its federally designated critical habitat.

    The Concho water snake is a reptile endemic to central Texas. It was listed as threatened on September 3, , due to threats of habitat modification and destruction 51 FR Through implementation of recovery efforts, the Service has determined that this species has been recovered and no longer meets the definition of threatened or endangered. Comments on the proposed rule must be received on or before September 8, Public hearing requests must be received by August 22, In studying an invasive species, scientists want to know how it colonized a new territory — where, when and how it arrived, and with how many colonists.

    The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is a major invasive pest in the Southern United States and other countries. Scientists know something about its arrival from its native South America: it came in a cargo ship that unloaded at the port of Mobile, Ala. Now Kenneth G. Ross of the University of Georgia and D. Since fire ant workers are sterile, the founders must have been mated queens. The researchers combed through genetic data from ants in South America and the United States to determine the degree of genetic variation and then estimated the number of queens that would lead to such variation.

    As they report in Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, it is likely that the initial invasion consisted of only 9 to 20 unrelated queens, although results suggest there may have been one or more secondary invasions. Either way, a handful of queens is responsible for the spread of these ants in the South, where they sting people, disturb fields and make a nuisance of themselves. Department of Energy DOE will channel resources at its national laboratories into sequencing the genome of duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza in According to the researchers, duckweed plants can extract nitrogen and phosphate pollutants from agricultural and municipal wastewater.

    They can reduce algae growth, coliform bacterial counts and mosquito larvae on ponds, while concentrating heavy metals, capturing or degrading toxic chemicals, and encourage the growth of other aquatic animals such as frogs and fowl. These plants produce biomass faster than any other flowering plant, serve as high-protein feed for domestic animals and show clear potential as an alternative for biofuel production.

    The Spirodela genome sequence could unlock the remarkable potential of a rapidly growing aquatic plant for absorbing atmospheric carbon dioxide, ecosystem carbon cycling and biofuel production. A massive two week-old blaze is still sweeping through the scenic Big Sur area, and the fate of three condor chicks born in the wild in April is unknown. One nest was in the path of the fire and flames damaged an aviary where captive chicks are trained before being released into the wild. The society is the only nonprofit group releasing and managing California condors in the wild.

    Keeran said eight captive chicks had been rescued by helicopter just before fire went through their home in the society's aviary in a remote Big Sur canyon last week. More than 80, acres and destroyed 48 homes and other buildings. Containment is not expected until the end of July. Fire has already swept through a wild area where one of the condor chicks was nesting. The two other chicks have nests closer to the Pacific Ocean but their fate in the thick acrid smoke covering the region is not known, she said. California condors have a low breeding rate, laying eggs only once every two years, and chicks depend on their parents for more than a year.

    The Ventana Wildlife Society www. The birds are equipped with tracking devices and the society puts out food to supplement what the carrion-eaters find in the wild. Hopefully their transmitters are just not working properly," Keeran said. In the July 10, issue of the journal Nature, scientists from Scripps Research reveal the shape of the Ebola virus spike protein, which is necessary for viral entry into human cells, bound to an immune system antibody acting to neutralize the virus. The structure provides a major step forward in understanding how the deadly virus works, and may be useful in the development of potential Ebola virus vaccines, or treatments for those infected.

    Erica Ollmann Saphire, who led the five-year effort. There is currently no cure for Ebola hemorrhagic fever. The virus is spread when people come into contact with the bodily fluids of someone who is already infected. Most ultimately die from a combination of dehydration, massive bleeding, and shock. The best treatment consists of administering fluids and taking protective measures to ensure containment, like isolating the patient and washing sheets with bleach. A couple hundred of the mountain gorillas left in the wild live in the Congo The vehicle was carrying 11 people, and the wife of a park guard and her daughter were killed.

    A park guard, the wife of another guard and a trainer WWF were wounded. The attackers fled with five GPS tracking devices, the radio said. More than rangers have been killed in Virunga park over the last decade. The Neumuenster Zoo in northern Germany owns Knut's father, Lars, and says it is the legal owner of his first offspring — Knut — under a deal made with the Berlin Zoo, where the cub was born in The Berlin Zoo has said it recognizes Neumuenster's ownership in principle, but maintains that does not give Neumuenster a right to any proceeds from the polar bear's huge success.

    It has licensing agreements for all kinds of Knut products, including stuffed animals, T-shirts, mugs and DVDs. Neumuenster Zoo director Peter Druewa said in a statement that his zoo had unsuccessfully tried to negotiate with the Berlin Zoo but has now turned to a court in Berlin for a ruling. Navasha was transferred to Little Rock after a recommendation from the Species Survival Plan, as a companion to year-old Johari, who's been in Little Rock since The pair has not yet met officially, though both rhinos are able to see each other occasionally.

    Supervisor Ken Vogel said how the money is used will be subject to the Board of Supervisors' approval at a later date. However, Hansen stipulated in his will that it must fund youth activities at Micke Grove Zoo. Hansen, who died in at the age of 95, was a good friend of Micke Grove Park founder William Micke. African elephant, Asali is months pregnant, and when her baby arrives a year from now after a month pregnancy , it will be the first baby elephant born at the Memphis Zoo in its year-history.

    She was impregnated via artificial insemination last September with the combined sperm of bull elephants from Jacksonville, Fla. They don't know which elephant is the father. The pregnancy was recommended by the African elephant species survival plan, which manages the genetic makeup of captive animals. Because Asali's DNA is not highly represented among captive elephants, it makes her a good breeding candidate. A second population of a small and endangered California wildflower the Cuyamaca Lake Downingia was recently found by Nature Conservancy ecologist, Zachary Principe. The only other population is nearly 20 miles away, in the Cuyamaca Mountains of eastern San Diego County.

    Principe made the find while traversing a conservation easement within eastern San Diego County which was recently donated to the Conservancy by the Wheatley family of Del Mar. Vernal lakes and pools are also quite rare. About three dozen cable car passengers on the Skyfari ride were stranded for nearly five hours on Wednesday night at the Bronx Zoo after an emergency mechanism caused the ride to shut down.

    The ride automatically shut itself down about p. There were no reported injuries, but passengers were hungry and a bit cold. The three people inside the disabled car, which hung about feet from the ground, were rescued first, about three hours after the shutdown using a crane with a basket attached. Once they were unloaded, workers began making repairs to the car. Police and fire officials said that 37 people were trapped, including seven children, at heights ranging from 60 to feet. Officials said the passengers would undergo a medical evaluation.

    One, seven months pregnant, was taken to a nearby hospital complaining of cramps. Shortly before 11 p. Then waves of zoo workers who had stuck it out during the episode began to file out. Calvelli, a spokesman for the zoo, apologized to those inconvenienced by the shutdown. The Prebles is a valid subspecies and should not be delisted based upon taxonomic revision.

    The subspecies is not threatened throughout all of its range; and 3. The portion of the subspecies' current range located in Colorado represents a significant portion of the current range where the subspecies should retain its threatened status. Prebles' populations in Wyoming are more widespread and threats to the subspecies less severe than those known at the time of listing, but that in Colorado the Prebles is likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future.

    He was at least 30 years old, and lived in San Diego from to He died at the Ghuanzhou Zoo on July 5. Three centuries ago, California was a blooming garden of wildflowers. Orange California poppies, red monkeyflower, yellow fiddleneck, blue feltleaf, indigo lupine, white yarrow, lavender, sage, pink buckwheat and brown spotted coralroot, blanketed the land. Even California poppies Eschscholzia californica are increasingly hard to find in natural abundance. Minnich, a professor of ecology at the University of California Riverside. He notes that in , for example, John Muir described the Central Valley as a mile-long, mile-wide ocean of flowers.

    In 1 square yard of the valley floor, Muir recorded 16 plant species and , open flowers. Making it tough for endemic flowers are invaders such as bromes. These are hardy bunched grasses that are found in temperate regions around the world, are too tough to be fodder, too plain to be ornamental plants. Bromes like cheatgrass and other heat-tolerant invaders, such as summer mustard, thrived in the state's hotter, drier valleys and deserts. As with the coast, they quickly began squeezing out wildflowers. The Minnesota Zoo had its highest attendance in nine years, drawing more than 1.

    Memberships hit a new record, with 36, households representing more than , people. The blockbuster exhibit featuring animals, vegetation and geological features of the Russian Far East, and is the only exhibit in the United States to have grizzly bears, sea otters, endangered Amur leopards and wild boars in a single exhibit, helped draw , visitors to the Apple Valley zoo in June.

    That is the second highest monthly total in zoo history. They were born four days apart on June 27 and July 1. Through breeding of those held in captivity, their numbers have grown to about 1, The two foals, a filly and a colt, were sired by a 9-year-old stallion named Frog. Biologists have ranked the father the most genetically valuable Przewalski's horse in the U. The mothers were brought over from Europe to breed with Frog in late The financially strapped zoo has struggled for years, but low attendance this year has made just paying employees and food venders for the animals difficult.

    Representatives from the nonprofit zoo have asked the county for support to keep The Zoo open. We can't fund-raise our way out of this problem," said Danyelle Lantz, The Zoo's executive director. Lantz asked commissioners to consider adopting an interlocal governing authority that would include the county, the cities of Gulf Breeze and Milton, the Tourist Development Council and possibly Okaloosa and Escambia counties.

    The last ten years has seen a huge increase in the popularity of exotic pets: monkeys, tarantulas, iguanas, salamanders, snakes even hedgehogs. And as animal collections and reserves around the world develop their conservation and captive breeding programs there is an increasing demand for expertise in the husbandry of exotic animals. The University of Nottingham has joined forces with Twycross Zoo to supply veterinarians with that expertise.

    The African population of Lesser Flamingo is declining due to a number of threats amongst which poorly planned development and water pollution are paramount. Kamfers Dam supports one of only four breeding populations of of Lesser Flamingos Phoeniconaias minor in Africa, and the only breeding population in South Africa. It is anticipated that regular breeding will reverse the negative population trend of this globally Near-Threatened species. Kamfers Dam is currently the depository for raw sewage that flows from the currently dysfunctional treatment plant, a result of poor management of the sewerage works by the Sol Plaatje Municipality.

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    The increased constant eutrophication has led to severe algal blooms and may be responsible for the current lesions and abnormalities being recorded on some of the Lesser Flamingos. Moja, another elephant at the zoo, is expecting any day. Zoo president Barbara Baker says Moja has set a record for the longest pregnancy by a captive elephant at days—and counting. Both elephants mated with the zoo's bull elephant, Jackson. The two cubs weighed about 2 pounds at birth and have spent the past two months in seclusion with their mother.

    It is the first litter of snow leopards born at the zoo in 16 years. The flock that passes through here is the only self-sustaining colony of whooping cranes and the largest of three in the country. Under federal protection, like the bald eagle, the Wood Buffalo-Aransus colony is making a gentle comeback with members compared to only 30 or so counted back in the '40s.

    The agency plans to meet in Denver later in the week with 30 wind companies working the Great Plains region. If all the parties can agree to what's called a "habitat conservation plan" for the cranes it would be the largest in number of states and participants ever developed by the federal agency. A map of the proposed wind farm site, is at www.

    Some of the threats are global, including elevated ocean temperatures that have stressed corals, but they also face excessive and destructive fishing and polluted runoff that buries them under sediment or bathes them in nutrients that fuel out-of-control growth of algae and bacteria. Compounding the problem are various diseases that kill corals when they are under stress.

    Using criteria established by the IUCN, a team of scientists determined that a loss of reefs and mounting threats had nudged the animals into the "critically endangered," "endangered" or "vulnerable" categories, leapfrogging other groups threatened with extinction. The results, released online Thursday by the journal Science, were presented at the International Coral Reef Symposium in Fort Lauderdale, where nearly 3, scientists and managers have gathered to learn about the latest scientific discoveries and try to figure out ways to save the world's reefs.

    The "shortfall" in ivory described in the document between and — equal to the tusks from about 11, dead elephants — could provide fodder for representatives of a U. Early studies found that the big predators such as tigers, lions, and lynxes fulfilled their dietary needs by eating one or two types of prey, but in a new study, scientists from the University of Malaga found that felines need from 5 to 7 different types of prey to fulfil their dietary needs.

    They found that only the hypercarnivorous canines wolves and other species related to dogs have a diet consisting of three types of prey. On the other hand, the felines need more prey, although there are exceptions with the cheetah and the Iberian lynx, who concentrate a lot of ingested biomass in a few types of prey. This leads to a paradox: in spite of the fact that canines have cranial and dental skeletal characteristics that are less specialized compared to those of the felines, their populations are more specialized ecologically than the felines.

    The canines are more omnivorous they can eat more invertebrate prey and fruit than the felines, since, even the hypercarnivorous still have a carnivorous set of teeth containing 42 permanent teeth, and molars, that make it possible for them to eat a greater variety of food. The felines, have a smaller set of 30 permanent teeth and they are much more specialized. They can kill with their canines and cut meat with their flesh-eating teeth. File No. Holloway-Adkins will capture up to 60 green and 5 loggerhead sea turtles annually. The turtles will be weighed, measured, flipper tagged, Passive Integrated Transponder PIT tagged, and blood and tissue sampled.

    A subset of green turtles will be lavaged. The applicant will also conduct visual transect surveys. This research will characterize the turtle aggregation using the nearshore reef system of Brevard county, Florida as well as monitor the impact of local beach nourishment activities on the sea turtles and their habitat. Hart will capture up to 30 green, 20 hawksbill, and 20 loggerhead sea turtles annually. Turtles will be weighed, measured, flipper tagged, PIT tagged, blood sampled, tissue sampled, fecal sampled, and lavaged. A subset of turtles will be tagged with a satellite tag or acoustic transmitter or a combination of both.

    This research will address fine-scale temporal and spatial patterns of sea turtle habitat use, ecology, and genetic origin within the Dry Tortugas National Park. The baby bird, which died, was a member of an endangered species from the island of Mauritius and was being kept in a remote, off-exhibit breeding facility at the North County park. The park had previously diagnosed West Nile virus in a wild crow on its grounds, but the pigeon infection in May was the first found in a collection animal.

    San Diego County's environmental health department placed mosquito traps at the park during the first week of July, but no West Nile was detected among the insects caught, said Chris Conlan of the county's vector-control division. Conlan said he would give the same advice to people going to the Wild Animal Park as to people anywhere in the county: If you are going out at dusk, wear insect repellent, as mosquitoes carry West Nile virus. If the plan goes forward, some animals for the new exhibits will come from behind-the-scenes holding pens on the outskirts of the park's 1, acres.

    Others will be transfers from the zoo or imports from other North American zoos and breeding facilities. One species, the cape hunting dog, may come from an African breeding facility. Steenbok, another antelope look-alike and the greater flamingo are already on display at the park but will be relocated into the Africa exhibit for better viewing and larger quarters.

    Bird inhabitants will include the lappet-faced vulture last displayed at the zoo in the s and new to the Park. That's still the plan, but there's no timeline for it. The purpose for developing a CCP is to provide refuge managers with a year plan for achieving refuge purposes and contributing toward the mission of the National Wildlife Refuge System.

    The nearly acre Ellicott Slough National Wildlife Refuge, located in Santa Cruz County, California, consists of three non-contiguous units within and adjacent to Ellicott Slough and associated watersheds. The Refuge was established to protect the endangered Santa Cruz long-toed salamander by supporting two of the twenty known breeding populations of the salamander.

    Due to the sensitivity of the habitat, the Refuge is closed to the public. Through this CCP process, we will determine whether any wildlife-dependent recreational opportunities should be made available to the public. Written comments must be received by August 13, Send via e-mail to : sfbaynwrc fws.

    Washington's National Zoo has 2, animals, 1, volunteers and staff members. This group, started in , uses its photography to support the zoo. The group meets monthly for presentations on technique, new technology and equipment and to share their recent photos. They organize photo-ops at the zoo and travel opportunities to other zoos and photography hot spots. The proposed permit would authorize the take of an individual SBKR. The Applicant needs the permit because take of SBKR could occur during the proposed construction of a commercial development on an 8.

    The permit application includes the proposed Habitat Conservation Plan Plan , which describes the proposed action and the measures that the Applicant would undertake to minimize and mitigate take of the SBKR. Please submit written comments on or before September 12, to Mr. You also may send comments by facsimile to You may obtain copies of these documents for review by contacting the above office and at the San Bernardino County Libraries. The species lives in eastern Madagascar in the dense, evergreen mountainous rainforests of the Makira region.

    They were discovered by the Malagasy scientists when inventorying the lemur fauna of the area. To date, this generally unknown species has been sighted only in the Makira region. The woman keeper was bitten as she and colleagues were doing desensitizing training on Mahali, a 5-year-old male hippo. The training helps condition the animal "so he's more comfortable having hands or any dental tool in his mouth," she said.

    The keeper quickly freed her hand by popping him on the side of his nose. WALL, S. A third of the animals may have been killed. In the s only 18 animals existed, but the species had been coming back for decades. But the ferrets are an easy target for the bacteria. Livieri is working with the USFWS black-footed ferret recovery team, the Forest Service and some volunteers to try to save the colony at Conata Basin by dusting prairie dog burrows with flea powder that kills the plague-carrying insects. Livieri is also working on a vaccination program, prowling the prairie all night to capture ferrets for injections.

    But while the federal Forest Service is part of the effort to protect ferrets, it has also, at the request of area ranchers, poisoned several thousands of acres of prairie dogs chief prey of the ferret on the edge of the Conata Basin, a buffer strip of federal land adjacent to private grazing land.

    The buffer strip does not have ferrets, but it is good ferret habitat, experts say, and if they were to spread there it could help support the recovery. The Guild introduced the discipline of biomimicry to an audience of biotech firms, educators, research scientists, engineers and others interested individuals.

    Biomimicry is the science of taking inspiration from nature, its systems, processes and elements to solve design problems in a sustainable matter. Biomimicry is a core component of the advancement and expansion of the cleantech industry. A recent paper in Nature Genetics shows that humans share a common genetic imprinting mechanism with marsupials despite the differences in reproductive strategies.

    Marilyn Renfree who lead the University of Melbourne research team says marsupials give birth to very small young that develop mainly within the pouch while humans have more developed young at birth that undergo a large period of growth in the uterus. Genomic imprinting is a mechanism that regulates gene expression in the developing fetus and plays a major role in regulating its growth.

    Normally, both copies of the gene are used for development, but in some special cases the gene from either our mother or father is switched off, so we only have one active copy. Pask explains that a key gene regulating fetal growth is the Insulin-like-growth-factor-2 or IGF2 which is an imprinted gene. The switch for this gene is controlled by another gene known as H The H19 gene is unusual gene that makes a microRNA and not a protein. Pask explains that the microRNA structure is virtually identical to that of mice and humans, but there was no evidence of this gene or a similar microRNA in the more distantly related platypus.

    A Spanish parliamentary committee adopted resolutions last month that would give great apes, such as chimpanzees and gorillas, the right to life, freedom from arbitrary captivity and protection from torture. Spain's legislation would outlaw using great apes in experiments, circuses, TV commercials or films. Apes could be kept in zoos, but conditions would be improved. If finally approved, Spain would be the first nation to extend human rights to mans closest genetic relatives.

    Another court case from Austria could go further if it declares a chimp could have a legal guardian and funds for upkeep. Animal rights activists hail the major steps that would prevent apes from being captured, used for experiments or put in circuses. Michele Stumpe of Atlanta, president of the Great Ape Project International, which has campaigned 15 years for apes' rights. Some legal analysts warn of a danger in giving apes equal legal status because an animal's rights could conflict or supersede a human's rights in future court rulings. The Doner advertising agency has done pro bono work for the Detroit Zoo for 26 years and is now rolling out an advertising blitz to promote the Aug.

    Television ads will begin appearing July The zoo's ownership was transferred in from the City of Detroit to the Detroit Zoological Society, but the zoo still needs a long-term revenue source to plug the budget hole left by the end of Detroit's annual subsidy. In one TV a little girl at dusk is shown saying "good night" to a giraffe, a tiger and several other animals before the ad concludes with the message, "Let's not say good night to our zoo forever. A similar photo of a girl at a voting station with the tagline, "Kids would keep the zoo if they could," is being used for billboards, magazine ads and direct mail pieces.

    Margaret was not only the first female Rothschild Giraffe born at the zoo, but she is also thought to be the smallest giraffe ever born. A first calf for six-year-old Faye, Margaret tipped the scales at just 34 kilos and was a mere 5ft at birth. She had difficulty suckling from Faye and eventually had to be removed from the rest of the herd as a dedicated team of keepers battled to save her life.

    Tim Rowlands, the zoo's assistant curator of higher vertebrates, said her difficulties in feeding meant at one point we were literally having to feed her by tube just to keep her alive. She eventually formed a bond with 2 keepers and began to bottle feed from them. The National Zoological Gardens of South Africa in Pretoria, Tshwane attracts in excess of visitors annually and ranks among the top 10 zoos in the world. The total length of the walkways in the Zoo is approximately 6km.

    The four African countries permitted to make the one-off sales of registered ivory stocks to China are Botswana, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe. The ivory approved for sale to China have been collected through culling of elephants from over populated areas, also natural deaths and seizures. However, conservation organizations say that the sale of ivory to China will stimulate demand and create loopholes for illegal ivory to be laundered into the legal market.

    To get the Cites approval, China had to convince the standing committee members that it had taken adequate measures to control the illegal domestic trade of ivory. Ghana and Kenya joined Australia in trying to block the decision. Those in favor included Britain, the European Union and Japan. The two males and one female were the first of their kind to be bred outside of the wild and Mr Stanioch said the fussy nesters had presented a real risk. Mr Stanioch said curlews were extremely particular about their habitat and only lived and nested in areas with the right balance of mangroves, sand and rocks.

    In the wild they normally produce only one egg, which they lay directly onto the sand in a small depression just above the high tide mark. This allows them to ensure an incubation period of 30 days, Mr Stanioch said. While endangered in other parts of Australia, curlews are relatively common in the Northern Territory because of its vast and undeveloped beaches. Mr Stanioch said the breeding program would allow scientists to learn more about the curlew's breeding biology as well as their diet analysis and "quirky characteristics". Researchers already have established that curlews are capable of laying at 21 months of age and, in the wild, tend to do so from October to January.

    Hopefully, in 30 days time, a healthy chick emerges. A rimu mast can occur every three to five years in a rimu-dominant forest, and experts believe this will be one of those years. There are currently only 91 of the critically endangered flightless parrots, and more than 50 chicks are predicted to be hatched this season, according to national kakapo recovery team leader Emma Neill. The rimus on Codfish Island, are expected to fruit this summer, and the last time this happened, in , 24 chicks hatched, she said.

    Last March and April, seven chicks hatched on Codfish Island, but one died of natural complications.